Biological extinction in earth history.

  title={Biological extinction in earth history.},
  author={David M. Raup},
  • D. Raup
  • Published 28 March 1986
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • Science
Virtually all plant and animal species that have ever lived on the earth are extinct. For this reason alone, extinction must play an important role in the evolution of life. The five largest mass extinctions of the past 600 million years are of greatest interest, but there is also a spectrum of smaller events, many of which indicate biological systems in profound stress. Extinction may be episodic at all scales, with relatively long periods of stability alternating with short-lived extinction… 
The Sixth Extinction Crisis Loss of Animal Populations and Species
There is an explosion of descriptions of new species even in previously "well-known" groups such as mammals, suggesting that previous estimates of the magnitude of biodiversity may be too low.
Death Stars, Ecology, and Mass Extinctions
Evidence for extrinsic influences on the biosphere will certainly aid in comprehending the nature of biohistorical events, such as mass extinctions, and may well be responsible for...
The Cronus Hypothesis - Extinction as a Necessary and Dynamic Balance to Evolutionary Diversification Corey
A new metaphor called the Cronus hypothesis (patricidal son of Gaia) is proposed to explain how these processes can be quantified with existing mathematical tools and so be used to describe the ebb and flow of life on Earth along a thermodynamic spectrum.
Biodiversity in Geological Time
Over the past 400 million years, the trajectories of taxonomic diversity among marine invertebrates, vascular plants, and terrestrial vertebrates were roughly congruent; there were relatively few taxa in each group in the late Paleozoic followed by a striking increase from the late Mesozoic to the levels observed today.
How the Red Queen Drives Terrestrial Mammals to Extinction
The evolutionary dynamics of 19 Cenozoic terrestrial mammalian clades with rich fossil records that are now fully extinct or in diversity decline are analyzed and it is found their diversity loss was not just a consequence of “gamblers ruin” but resulted from the evolutionary loss to the Red Queen, a failure to keep pace with a deteriorating environment.
The biology of mass extinction: a palaeontological view.
  • D. Jablonski
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1989
Taxa and adaptations can be lost not because they were poorly adapted by the standards of the background processes that constitute the bulk of geological time, but because they lacked--or were not linked to--the organismic, species-level or clade-level traits favoured under mass-extinction conditions.
Dynamics of origination and extinction in the marine fossil record
  • J. Alroy
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2008
The discipline-wide effort to database the fossil record at the occurrence level has made it possible to estimate marine invertebrate extinction and origination rates with much greater accuracy. The
Marine planktonic microbes survived climatic instabilities in the past
  • P. Cermeño
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2011
F fossil records of marine planktonic diatoms and calcareous nannoplankton over the past 65 million years from the world oceans are analyzed to show that the probability of species' extinction is not correlated with secular changes in climatic instability and show that these marine microbes responded to exceptional climatic contingencies in a manner that appears to have promoted net diversification.


Neogene mass extinction of Western Atlantic molluscs
There have been many hypotheses for the global mass extinctions that occurred during the Phanerozoic history of the Earth, and although we cannot study the course of such a mass extinction in
Experimental evidence that an asteroid impact led to the extinction of many species 65 million years ago.
  • L. W. Alvarez
  • Geology, Physics
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1983
An overview is presented of the theory that an asteroid hit the earth 65 million years ago wiping out large numbers of land and marine species, and the transport mechanism of the dust created by the impact and four mechanisms for the extinction of species are discussed.
Background and Mass Extinctions: The Alternation of Macroevolutionary Regimes
Comparison of evolutionary patterns among Late Cretaceous marine bivalves and gastropods during times of normal, background levels of extinction and during the end-Cretaceous mass extinction
Temperature and biotic crises in the marine realm
Climatic change has been a prominent cause of marine mass extinction, but areal restriction of seafloor during global regression has not. Late Eocene and Pliocene-Pleistocene cooling, for example,
Periodicity of extinctions in the geologic past.
  • D. Raup, J. Sepkoski
  • Geography, Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1984
The temporal distribution of the major extinctions over the past 250 million years has been investigated statistically using various forms of time series analysis and contains 12 extinction events that show a statistically significant periodicity.
Extraterrestrial Cause for the Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction
A hypothesis is suggested which accounts for the extinctions and the iridium observations, and the chemical composition of the boundary clay, which is thought to come from the stratospheric dust, is markedly different from that of clay mixed with the Cretaceous and Tertiary limestones, which are chemically similar to each other.
Periodic extinction of families and genera.
Time-series analysis of eight major episodes of biological extinction of marine families over the past 250 million years strongly suggests a 26-million-year periodicity, robust even when adjusted for simultaneous testing of many trial periods.
Extinction of species by periodic comet showers
A 26-Myr periodicity has recently been seen in the fossil record of extinction in the geological past1. At least two of these extinctions are known to be associated with the impact on the Earth of a
Permo-Triassic Extinctions: Effects of Area on Biotic Equilibrium
Schopf (1974) suggests that the decrease in number of families of marine invertebrates during the Permian and subsequent increase in the Lower Triassic are due to changes in the area of the shallow
Evolution in a pelagic planktic system: A paleobiologic test of models of multispecies evolution
Two rival models of evolution in multispecies systems are tested against empirical species-level data. The two models are the Red Queen model of Van Valen as reformulated by Stenseth and Maynard