Biological energy sources: the surface energy and the physical chemistry of water. Examples from studies on muscle contraction.


The physical chemistry of water at nanometre dimensions was used to explain the conformational changes and water breaking properties of the glucose transporter protein (GLUTI) in human erythrocytes more than ten years ago. The energy for this hidden work arises from cycles of evaporation and condensation of water within the cells but was several times… (More)


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