Biological clock: Biological clocks may modulate drug addiction

@article{Yuferov2005BiologicalCB,
  title={Biological clock: Biological clocks may modulate drug addiction},
  author={Vadim P Yuferov and Eduardo R Butelman and Mary Jeanne Kreek},
  journal={European Journal of Human Genetics},
  year={2005},
  volume={13},
  pages={1101-1103}
}
A recent study by McClung's group (2005),1 expanding on an earlier report,2 provides mechanistic insight to the timekeeper gene, Clock, which may regulate dopaminergic transmission and cocaine reward. This work provides further evidence that cocaine-induced effects have circadian influences. 
Clock genes as a link between addiction and obesity
  • H. Manev, T. Uz
  • Biology, Psychology
    European Journal of Human Genetics
  • 2006
TLDR
The fact that Clock mutant mice are models for both addiction and obesity may be interpreted as evidence that clock genes participate in brain mechanisms that regulate eating and cocaine addiction (eg, pleasure); for example, through a dopamine neurotransmitter system.
Differential Regulation of the Period Genes in Striatal Regions following Cocaine Exposure
TLDR
Examination of Per gene and Npas2 expression over twenty-four hours identified changes in diurnal rhythmicity of these genes following chronic cocaine, which were regionally specific.
Drugs of Abuse Can Entrain Circadian Rhythms
TLDR
It is suggested that drug-entrained rhythms reflect variations in underlying neurophysiological states, which could be the basis for known daily variations in drug metabolism, tolerance, and sensitivity to drug reward.
Cocaine modulates pathways for photic and nonphotic entrainment of the mammalian SCN circadian clock.
TLDR
Multiple effects of cocaine on adult circadian clock regulation that are registered within the SCN and involve enhanced serotonergic transmission are revealed.
Circadian rhythms and sleep in bipolar disorder.
TLDR
There are significant conceptual and empirical limitations on the understanding of a hypothesised link between circadian, sleep, and emotion regulation processes in bipolar disorder.
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TLDR
A role is established for the Clock gene in regulating dopamine function and cocaine reward in mice lacking a functional Clock gene, and changes in several genes known to regulate dopamine activity in the ventral tegmental area are demonstrated.
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The circadian clock is a widespread cellular mechanism that underlies diverse rhythmic functions in organisms from bacteria and fungi, to plants and animals, and the weight of evidence favours their independent evolutionary origins in different kingdoms.
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Findings indicate unexpected roles for these genes in regulating cocaine sensitization and indicate that they function as regulators of tyrosine decarboxylase.
The clock gene Per2 influences the glutamatergic system and modulates alcohol consumption
Period (Per) genes are involved in regulation of the circadian clock and are thought to modulate several brain functions. We demonstrate that Per2Brdm1 mutant mice, which have a deletion in the PAS
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It is demonstrated that processes involved in cocaine addiction depend on the circadian rhythm and are modulated in an opposing manner by mPer1 and mPer2 genes.
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The molecular genetics and pharmacogenetics of opiate and cocaine addictions are reviewed, focusing primarily on genes of the opioid and monoaminergic systems that have been associated with or have evidence for linkage to opiate or cocaine addiction.
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The cloning, exon organization, chromosomal location, and mRNA expression of the human CLOCK gene suggests that it will be a useful candidate gene for genetic analyses of disorders associated with dysfunction of the circadian system.
Single-nucleotide polymorphism in the human mu opioid receptor gene alters beta-endorphin binding and activity: possible implications for opiate addiction.
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TLDR
Results show that SNPs in the mu opioid receptor gene can alter binding and signal transduction in the resulting receptor and may have implications for normal physiology, therapeutics, and vulnerability to develop or protection from diverse diseases including the addictive diseases.
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