Biological challenge procedures used to study co-occurring nicotine dependence and panic disorder.

@article{Abrams2008BiologicalCP,
  title={Biological challenge procedures used to study co-occurring nicotine dependence and panic disorder.},
  author={Kenneth Abrams and Koen R. J. Schruers and Fiammetta Cosci and Shaun Sawtell},
  journal={Addictive behaviors},
  year={2008},
  volume={33 11},
  pages={1463-9}
}
A wide array of biological challenge procedures - including carbon dioxide inhalation, hyperventilation, and breath holding - have been used to model panic in laboratory settings. Originally used to study developmental processes in panic disorder (PD), these procedures, along with nicotine patch administration and self-administered smoking, have recently been applied to help understand the etiology of co-occurring nicotine dependence and PD. The goals of the present paper are to review studies… CONTINUE READING

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