miR-193a-3p interaction with HMGB1 downregulates human endothelial cell proliferation and migration
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that act mainly as negative regulators of gene expression. Several studies demonstrated that miRNAs take part in numerous biological processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, and migration. The dysregulation of miRNAs has been frequently observed in different types of disease, including cancer. Here, we provide a comprehensive review on the human miR-193a-3p by considering its role in both physiological and pathological contexts. Different mechanisms involved in regulating miR-193a-3p expression have been reported, including epigenetic modifications and transcription factors. In physiological contexts, miR-193a-3p seemed able to limit proliferation and cell cycle progression in normal cells. Remarkably, several publications demonstrated that miR-193a-3p acted as a tumor suppressor miRNA in cancer by targeting different genes involved in proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, and metastasis. Furthermore, the downregulation of miR-193a-3p has been observed in many primary tumors and altered levels of circulating miR-193a-3p have been identified in serum or plasma of cancer patients and subjects affected by Parkinson's disease or by schizophrenia. In a clinical perspective, further studies are needed to explore the antitumor effects of the miR-193a-3p mimics delivery and the relevance of this miRNA detection as a possible diagnostic and prognostic biomarker.