Biological Aging Is No Longer an Unsolved Problem

  title={Biological Aging Is No Longer an Unsolved Problem},
  author={Leonard Hayflick},
  journal={Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
  • L. Hayflick
  • Published 1 April 2007
  • Medicine
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Abstract:  The belief that aging is still an unsolved problem in biology is no longer true. Of the two major classes of theories, the one class that is tenable is derivative of a single common denominator that results in only one fundamental theory of aging. In order to address this complex subject, it is necessary to first define the four phenomena that characterize the finitude of life. These phenomena are aging, the determinants of longevity, age‐associated diseases, and death. There are… 

Aging and the decline in health

The biological reasons for aging are now understood and it can be said that aging has multiple causes, or is instead due to a general loss of molecular fidelity, that is, an increase in disorder.

The greatest risk factor for the leading cause of death is ignored

The goal in research on the etiology of aging is to use the new revolutionary methods to study single molecules and their constituent atoms to uncover the qualitative and quantitative status of molecules in old cells that differ from that in young cells.

Bioenergetics Theory of Aging

The average lifespan of people in developed countries has tripled since ancient times while its maximum longevity (about 120 years) has remained invariable. The strategic goal of gerontology is to

The joined aging theory

The united theory makes it possible to understand the nature of the aging clock and explains the phenomenon of lifespan extension under the conditions of food restriction and the only way to achieve unlimited healthy life is to find a way of managing bioenergetics.

A Multidisciplinary Approach to Explain Biological Aging and Longevity

A multidisciplinary approach is taken in an attempt to understand the root causes of aging and derive a theory of aging with fewer anomalies than existing theories, and may be useful in predicting outcomes of experimental attempts to modulate the aging phenotype.

Which Is the Most Significant Cause of Aging?

The synergism between the causes of aging is the main topic of this review and it is concluded that health/lifespan might be significantly extended if the authors eliminate or even attenuate the increase of a few or even just one of the Causes of aging.

An organismal view of cellular aging

Aging is not a disease: implications for intervention.

An understanding of aging as a process should transform the approach towards interventions from developing illusory anti-aging treatments to developing realistic and practical methods for maintaining health throughout the lifespan.

Longevity mutants do not establish any “new science” of ageing

To believe that the isolation and characterisation of a few invertebrate mutations will “galvanise” the field and provide new insights into human ageing is an extreme point of view which does not recognize the huge progress in ageing research that has been made in the last 50 years or so.

The Biology of Human Longevity, Aging and Age-Associated Diseases

Of the four aspects of the finitude of life, the only aspect that humans have manipulated is disease or pathology and that has a significant limit; the only way that this number can be exceeded is if the authors could intervene in the fundamental aging process itself or in the determinants of longevity.



How and why we age

The illusion of cell immortality

It is suggested that telomere attrition may be better understood as a direct measure of longevity determination and to only have an indirect association with age changes.

The future of ageing

Determination of longevity must be distinguished from ageing to take us from the common question of why the authors age to a more revealing question that is rarely posed: why do they live as long as they do.

Prospects for Human Longevity

A life expectancy at birth from 85 to 90 years in the 21st century, given the presence of entropy in the life table, is unlikely to arise until well past the time when everyone alive today has already died.

Deaths: preliminary data for 2004.

  • A. MiniñoMelonie P. HeronBetty L. Smith
  • Medicine
    National vital statistics reports : from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System
  • 2006
Age-adjusted death rates decreased between 2003 and 2004 for the following major causes of death: Diseases of heart, Malignant neoplasms, Cerebrovascular diseases, Chronic lower respiratory diseases, Accidents (unintentional injuries), Diabetes mellitus, influenza and pneumonia, Septicemia, Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, and Pneumonitis due to solids and liquids.

Deaths: final data for 2000.

The slight increase in the age-adjusted death rate that was experienced in 1999 reversed itself in accordance to a longer standing decreasing pattern, and mortality continued long-term trends.

Comparability of cause of death between ICD-9 and ICD-10: preliminary estimates.

Preliminary comparability ratios by cause of death presented in this report indicate the extent of discontinuities in cause-of-death trends from 1998 through 1999 resulting from implementing ICD-10, including Septicemia, Influenza and pneumonia, Alzheimer's disease, and Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis.

Small but mighty timekeepers

A tiny RNA molecule ensures that the larvae of a roundworm develop into adults. The discovery of this RNA in many other animal groups implies that this way of keeping developmental time may be

UNSOLVED problem of biology.

  • P. Medawar
  • Medicine, Biology
    The Medical journal of Australia
  • 1953