Biogenesis of Hyoscyamine

@article{Leete1954BiogenesisOH,
  title={Biogenesis of Hyoscyamine},
  author={Edward Leete and L{\'e}o Marion and Ian D. Spenser},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1954},
  volume={174},
  pages={650-651}
}
THE biogenetic origin of the tropane bases has recently been the subject of some discussion1,2, Mortimer1 suggesting that the tropane skeleton may be derived from the breakdown products of tryptophan metabolism. This novel idea is contrary to the accepted hypothesis that a base such as tropine is produced in vivo by reactions analogous to the in vitro synthesis3 of tropinone from succindialdehyde, methylamine and acetone. The succindialdehyde is considered to be a metabolite of ornithine, and… 
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This is the first reported syntheses of tropine or atropine labeled with 14C in positions other than the endo-methyl group.
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The authors discovered the enzymes AbPYKS and AbCYP82M3, a non-canonical polyketide synthase and a cytochrome P450, that work sequentially to form tropinone from N-methyl-Δ1-pyrrolinium cation.
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This study provides a long sought-after biosynthetic mechanism to explain condensation between N-methylpyrrolinium and acetate units and identifies an unusual plant type III polyketide synthase that can only catalyze one round of malonyl-CoA condensation.
Chapter 1 Alkaloids in the Plant
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THE isolation of both hyoscine and nicotine from a genotype of Duboisia myoporoides1 suggests the possibility of a close biosynthetic relation between these bases, and is consequently of interest in
Biogenesis of Alkaloids of Solanaceæ
TLDR
A different hypothesis is advanced on the sole new ground that hyoscine and nicotine have been found to be congeneric in one instance at least at least three times more likely than previously thought.
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The study of alkaloid metabolism may be expected to yield much information valuable to the wider study of the plant's nitrogen metabolism in general.
THE BIOGENESIS OF ALKALOIDS: III. A STUDY OF HYOSCYAMINE BIOSYNTHESIS USING ISOTOPIC PUTRESCINE
Putrescine-1: 4-C14 was fed to mature Daturastramonium in an investigation of the biosynthesis of l-hyoscyamine. Although C14 was metabolized by the plant, no radioactivity was found in the isolate...
Action of Ninhydrin on Keratin
TLDR
The basic side-chains of keratin must play a fundamental part in the cross-linking reaction, since no strengthening is obtained with completely deaminated fibres, and the extent of reaction is reduced when the lysine side- chains are blocked by means of 1-fluoro-2 : 4-dinitrobenzene or nitroso-benzenes.