Biofilms: an emergent form of bacterial life

@article{Flemming2016BiofilmsAE,
  title={Biofilms: an emergent form of bacterial life},
  author={Hans-Curt Flemming and Jost Wingender and Ulrich Szewzyk and Peter D. Steinberg and Scott A. Rice and Staffan Kjelleberg},
  journal={Nature Reviews Microbiology},
  year={2016},
  volume={14},
  pages={563-575}
}
Bacterial biofilms are formed by communities that are embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Importantly, bacteria in biofilms exhibit a set of 'emergent properties' that differ substantially from free-living bacterial cells. In this Review, we consider the fundamental role of the biofilm matrix in establishing the emergent properties of biofilms, describing how the characteristic features of biofilms — such as social cooperation, resource capture and… 
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