Biofeedback in the treatment of long-term temporomandibular joint pain: an outcome study.

@article{Carlsson1977BiofeedbackIT,
  title={Biofeedback in the treatment of long-term temporomandibular joint pain: an outcome study.},
  author={Sven G. Carlsson and Elliot N. Gale},
  journal={Biofeedback and self-regulation},
  year={1977},
  volume={2 2},
  pages={161-71}
}
Eleven patients with long-term pain related to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) were trained in tension awareness and relaxation using feedback of muscle tension level in the masseter through a digital display. At a follow-up examination 4-15 months after the termination of treatment, 8 of the 11 patients were totally symptom-free or significantly better; 1 patient was slightly better, and there was no effect for 2 patients. Possible reasons for failure and sex differences are discussed.