Biodiversity increases the resistance of ecosystem productivity to climate extremes

  title={Biodiversity increases the resistance of ecosystem productivity to climate extremes},
  author={Forest Isbell and Dylan Craven and John Connolly and Michel Loreau and Bernhard Schmid and Carl Beierkuhnlein and Thiemo Martijn Bezemer and Catherine L. Bonin and Helge Bruelheide and Enrica de Luca and Anne Ebeling and John N. Griffin and Qinfeng Guo and Yann Hautier and Andy Hector and Anke Jentsch and J{\"u}rgen Kreyling and Vojtěch Lanta and Peter Manning and Sebastian T. Meyer and Akira S. Mori and Shahid Naeem and Pascal Alex Niklaus and H. Wayne Polley and Peter B. Reich and Christiane Roscher and Eric W. Seabloom and Melinda D. Smith and Madhav P. Thakur and David Tilman and Benjamin F Tracy and Wim H. Putten and Jasper Ruijven and Alexandra Weigelt and Wolfgang W. Weisser and Brian J. Wilsey and Nico Eisenhauer},
It remains unclear whether biodiversity buffers ecosystems against climate extremes, which are becoming increasingly frequent worldwide. Early results suggested that the ecosystem productivity of diverse grassland plant communities was more resistant, changing less during drought, and more resilient, recovering more quickly after drought, than that of depauperate communities. However, subsequent experimental tests produced mixed results. Here we use data from 46 experiments that manipulated… 
Effect of diversity on growth, mortality, and loss of resilience to extreme climate events in a tropical planted forest experiment
This work constructs models based on a bootstrapping procedure to measure growth and mortality among different species richness treatments in response to extreme climate events, and finds growth is strongly regulated by climate events and mortality is increasingly higher during a consecutive four year dry event.
Species richness effects on grassland recovery from drought depend on community productivity in a multisite experiment.
This is the first multisite biodiversity × drought manipulation experiment to examine drought resistance and recovery at five temperate and Mediterranean grassland sites and suggests that a more context-dependent view considering the nature of the climatic disturbance as well as the productivity of the studied system will help identify under which circumstances biodiversity promotes drought resistance or recovery.
Stress gradients and biodiversity: monoculture vulnerability drives stronger biodiversity effects during drought years.
If biodiversity ameliorates hot/dry conditions and therefore improves performance of drought sensitive species during periods of low rainfall, this may mean biodiversity can be used as a tool to protect individual species from drought conditions.
Evolution of species complementarity in response to drought in a grassland biodiversity experiment
Growing threats from extreme climatic events and biodiversity loss have raised concerns about their interactive consequences for ecosystem functioning. Evidence suggests that biodiversity is
Plant diversity maintains long-term ecosystem productivity under frequent drought by increasing short-term variation.
It is shown that short-term variation between seasons in the face of environmental perturbation can lead to longer-term stability of annual productivity in diverse ecosystems compared to less diverse ecosystems.
Grassland biodiversity restoration increases resistance of carbon fluxes to drought
Evidence suggests that the restoration of plant diversity in grasslands not only brings benefits for biodiversity conservation, but also the delivery of ecosystem services. While
Invader presence disrupts the stabilizing effect of species richness in plant community recovery after drought
It is found that invader presence may disrupt how native community interactions lead to stability of ecosystems in response to extreme climatic events, and the interaction of three global change drivers, climate extremes, diversity decline, and invasive species, may exacerbate their effects on ecosystem functioning.
Evolution increases ecosystem temporal stability and recovery from a flood in grassland communities
It is suggested that prolonged exposure of plant populations to a particular community context and abiotic site conditions can increase ecosystem temporal stability and resistance to disturbance and is argued that selection during the course of a biodiversity experiment is the most parsimonious explanation for these effects.
Species composition but not diversity explains recovery from the 2011 drought in Texas grasslands
Rain-use efficiency recovery from drought was greatest in native communities in which the proportion of C3 forb biomass increased during and following drought and in exotic communities with a low proportion of short grass biomass, while exotic communities showed higher RUE than native communities, and irrigation significantly reduced RUE in both exotic and native communities across years.
Plant species richness sustains higher trophic levels of soil nematode communities after consecutive environmental perturbations
Using soil nematodes as indicator taxa, this study suggests that high plant species richness can maintain soil food web complexity after consecutive environmental perturbations.


Diversity‐dependent productivity in semi‐natural grasslands following climate perturbations
It is concluded from above-ground results that plant diversity is an essential entity of ecosystems for maintaining ecosystem functions in a changing climate and physiological evidence for the insurance hypothesis is not detected.
Biodiversity and ecosystem stability in a decade-long grassland experiment
It is found that greater numbers of plant species led to greater temporal stability of ecosystem annual aboveground plant production and the reliable, efficient and sustainable supply of some foods, fuels and ecosystem services can be enhanced by the use of biodiversity.
Diversity-dependent production can decrease the stability of ecosystem functioning
It is confirmed that biodiversity increases biomass production, but the results also point to the fact that such diversity–production associations may lead to an inverse relationship between biodiversity and the stability of ecosystem functioning.
Anthropogenic environmental changes affect ecosystem stability via biodiversity
Experiments in temperate grassland suggest that changes in biodiversity caused by drivers of environmental change may be a major factor determining how global environmental changes affect ecosystem stability.
Flooding disturbances increase resource availability and productivity but reduce stability in diverse plant communities.
It is shown that when a disturbance is associated with an increase in resource availability, the opposite may occur, undermining the utility of the biodiversity-stability hypothesis during a large number of disturbances where resource availability increases.
Biodiversity and stability in grasslands
ONE of the ecological tenets justifying conservation of biodiversity is that diversity begets stability. Impacts of biodiversity on population dynamics and ecosystem functioning have long been
Grassland Resistance and Resilience after Drought Depends on Management Intensity and Species Richness
It is concluded that low mowing frequency is more important for high resistance against drought than species richness, and species richness increased aboveground productivity in all management treatments both under drought and ambient conditions and should therefore be maintained under future climates.
Species Richness and the Temporal Stability of Biomass Production: A New Analysis of Recent Biodiversity Experiments
It is found that for both grasslands and algae, temporal correlations in species biomass are lower when species are grown together in polyculture than when grown alone in monoculture, suggesting that interspecific interactions tend to stabilize community biomass in diverse communities.
Species richness, temporal variability and resistance of biomass production in a Mediterranean grassland
It is demonstrated for the first time that the relative strength of overyielding remained constant during an exceptional natural environmental perturbation, supporting previous findings of a positive relationship between diversity and productivity and between Diversity and the temporal stability of production, but of no effect of diversity on the resistance to perturbations.
Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning
Species diversity is a major determinant of ecosystem productivity, stability, invasibility, and nutrient dynamics. Hundreds of studies spanning terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems show that