Biodiversity in a Warmer World

@article{Svenning2008BiodiversityIA,
  title={Biodiversity in a Warmer World},
  author={Jens‐Christian Svenning and Richard S. Condit},
  journal={Science},
  year={2008},
  volume={322},
  pages={206 - 207}
}
There is ample evidence that 20thcentury warming has shifted ranges of temperate and arctic species, but on page 261 of this issue, Moritz et al. (1) provide an exceptionally thorough example: They take advantage of a well-documented study from a century ago (2) to demonstrate contractions and expansions of elevation range among small mammals in Yosemite National Park, California, USA. In contrast, there have been few attempts to even address the tropics' sensitivity to global climate change (3… 
Impacts of climate warming on range shifts with emphasis on tropical mountains
Climate warming induced range shifts are evident globally for a wide range of taxonomic groups. However, whether such responses have taken place in tropical insect species is unclear. I provided the
Consequences of climate change for ecosystems and ecosystem services in the tropical Andes
The tropical Andes harbor extraordinary biological and cultural diversity, contained in a mosaic of ecosystems (Josse et al. 2009). The region’s complex topography, coupled with elevational and
Asymmetric boundary shifts of tropical montane Lepidoptera over four decades of climate warming
Aim To estimate whether species have shifted at equal rates at their leading edges (cool boundaries) and trailing edges (warm boundaries) in response to climate change. We provide the first such
4 °C and beyond: what did this mean for biodiversity in the past?
TLDR
What emerges from these past records is evidence for rapid community turnover, migrations, development of novel ecosystems and thresholds from one stable ecosystem state to another, but there is very little evidence for broad-scale extinctions due to a warming world.
Biotic attrition from tropical forests correcting for truncated temperature niches
Species migration in response to warming temperatures is expected to lead to ‘biotic attrition,’ or loss of local diversity, in areas where the number of species emigrating or going locally extinct
Why are there so many plant species in the Neotropics
TLDR
The evidence for each of these postulated causes of diversification is reviewed, the need of more well-sampled and dated phylogenies is highlighted, and increased inter-disciplinary collaboration is urged.
Conserving the Stage: Climate Change and the Geophysical Underpinnings of Species Diversity
TLDR
Testing how well geology predicts the species diversity of 14 US states and three Canadian provinces suggests that protecting geophysical settings will conserve the stage for current and future biodiversity and may be a robust alternative to species-level predictions.
Effects of Warming and Drought on the Vegetation and Plant Diversity in the Amazon Basin
Climate change is strong in the Amazon basin. Climate models consistently predict widespread warmer and drier conditions by the end of the 21st century. As a consequence, water stress will increase
Climate warming increases biodiversity of small rodents by favoring rare or less abundant species in a grassland ecosystem.
TLDR
The results suggest that recent climate warming increased the biodiversity of small rodents by providing more benefits to population growth of rare or less abundant species than that of more abundant species in Inner Mongolia grassland, which does not support the popular view that global warming would decrease biodiversity in colder and drier regions.
Topo‐climatic microrefugia explain the persistence of a rare endemic plant in the Alps during the last 21 millennia
TLDR
A novel paradigm to explain plant persistence is proposed by highlighting the importance of supporting functions of MR when forecasting the fate of plant species under climate change.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 20 REFERENCES
Biological response to climate change on a tropical mountain
Recent warming has caused changes in species distribution and abundance, but the extent of the effects is unclear. Here we investigate whether such changes in highland forests at Monteverde, Costa
Global Warming, Elevational Range Shifts, and Lowland Biotic Attrition in the Wet Tropics
TLDR
It is concluded that tropical lowland biotas may face a level of net lowlandBiotic attrition without parallel at higher latitudes and that a high proportion of tropical species soon faces gaps between current and projected elevational ranges.
Impact of a Century of Climate Change on Small-Mammal Communities in Yosemite National Park, USA
TLDR
A century-scale view of small-mammal responses to global warming is provided by repeating Grinnell's early–20th century survey across a 3000-meter-elevation gradient that spans Yosemite National Park, California, USA.
Postglacial dispersal limitation of widespread forest plant species in nemoral Europe
Climate is often singled out as the primary range limiting factor at large scales, while other environmental factors, notably soil, are thought to predominate at smaller scales. However, the
A Significant Upward Shift in Plant Species Optimum Elevation During the 20th Century
TLDR
This study shows that climate warming has resulted in a significant upward shift in species optimum elevation averaging 29 meters per decade, which is larger for species restricted to mountain habitats and for grassy species, which are characterized by faster population turnover.
Cenozoic Plant Diversity in the Neotropics
TLDR
A good correlation between diversity fluctuations and changes in global temperature was found, suggesting that tropical climate change may be directly driving the observed diversity pattern.
Historical biogeography, ecology and species richness.
Beta-Diversity in Tropical Forest Trees
TLDR
It is found that beta-diversity is higher in Panama than in western Amazonia and that patterns in both areas are inconsistent with the neutral model, suggesting that dispersal limitation, with speciation, influences species turnover.
Drought sensitivity shapes species distribution patterns in tropical forests
TLDR
It is shown that differential drought sensitivity shapes plant distributions in tropical forests at both regional and local scales, and changes in soil moisture availability caused by global climate change and forest fragmentation are likely to alter tropical species distributions, community composition and diversity.
CHANGES IN TREE SPECIES ABUNDANCE IN A NEOTROPICAL FOREST : IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE
TLDR
The impact of a 25-year drying trend and an associated increase in the severity of the 4-month dry season is having an obvious impact on the BCI forest, which is remarkably sensitive to a subtle climatic shift.
...
...