Biodiversity and Human Health

  title={Biodiversity and Human Health},
  author={Alonso A. Aguirre},
  • A. Aguirre
  • Published 15 July 2009
  • Environmental Science
  • EcoHealth
The rate of species loss today is approaching catastrophiclevels. Scientists project that over the next two decades,more than one million species of plants and animals willbecome extinct. E.O. Wilson has estimated, ‘‘The rate ofloss may exceed 50,000 a year, 137 a day…this rate, whilehorrendous, is actually the minimal estimate, based on thespecies/area relationship alone….’’ (Kellert and Wilson,1993, p. 16). Over-exploitation of species, habitat frag-mentation and destruction, and exotic… 
Changing Patterns of Emerging Zoonotic Diseases in Wildlife, Domestic Animals, and Humans Linked to Biodiversity Loss and Globalization.
This special issue, "Zoonotic Disease Ecology: Effects on Humans, Domestic Animals and Wildlife," explores the complex interactions of emerging infectious diseases across taxa linked to many of these anthropogenic and environmental drivers.
Ozone pollution: impacts on ecosystem services and biodiversity
This report provides a synthesis of current knowledge on the effects of ground-level ozone on ecosystem services and biodiversity. Ecosystems provide an array of services upon which humans depend
Adenoviruses in Côte d`Ivoire: investigation of diversity and interspecies transmission
In this first study on Adenovirus (AdV) in humans and domestic animals in Cote d`Ivoire, not only the prevalence and diversity of AdV shedding was assessed, but also the zoonotic and recombination potential ofAdV was elucidated.
Review of River Basin Water Resource Management in China
Water resources are the basis for supporting the entire life system of the Earth. However, with the frequent global water crises—especially in the river basins of China—the issue of water resources
Thinking big about small beings--the (yet) underdeveloped microbial natural products chemistry in Brazil.
An outlook to future perspectives of research in Brazil is presented considering the development of state-of-the-art strategies and approaches that have emerged during the last decade, aiming to investigate and better understand the microbial world and its chemical and biochemical capabilities.
Ethnomedicinal plants used for gastro-intestinal diseases by Adi tribes of Dehang-Debang Biosphere Reserve in Arunachal Pradesh.
An ethno-medico-botanical survey was carried out in Adi dominated areas of Dehang-Debang Biosphere Reserve (DDBR) of Arunachal Pradesh during 2005-2007 to study the pattern of use, preparation, and
Biodiversity conservation and rural livelihoods : a comparative study of selected conservation approaches in Zimbabwe.
Doctor of Philosophy in Geography and Environmental Management. University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 2014.


Biodiversity and Disease Risk: the Case of Lyme Disease
A conceptual model of how high species richness and evenness in communities of terrestrial vertebrates may reduce risk of exposure to Lyme disease and suggests that increases in species diversity within host communities may dilute the power of white‐footed mice to infect ticks by causing more ticks to feed on inefficient disease reservoirs.
Biodiversity loss and the rise of zoonotic pathogens.
  • R. Ostfeld
  • Medicine
    Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
  • 2009
Two zoonotic diseases are reviewed--West Nile virus illness and Lyme disease--in which high diversity in the community of vertebrate hosts for arthropod vectors strongly reduces human risk, and protection of humans against exposure to zoonosis should be added to the list of utilitarian functions provided by high biodiversity.
An empirically based simulation model is used to assess the degree to which the sequence of species loss from vertebrate communities influences risk of human exposure to Lyme disease, as measured by the proportion of ticks infected with the etiological agent.
The function of biodiversity in the ecology of vector-borne zoonotic diseases
The natural history of the Lyme disease zoonosis is described to illustrate interactions among pathogens, vectors, vertebrate hosts, and risk to humans and suggests that the effects of diversity on disease risk may be widespread.
The ecology of infectious disease: Effects of host diversity and community composition on Lyme disease risk
This study suggests that the preservation of vertebrate biodiversity and community composition can reduce the incidence of Lyme disease, and identifies important “dilution hosts” (e.g., squirrels), characterized by high tick burdens, low reservoir competence, and high population density, as well as “rescue hosts’’, which are capable of maintaining high disease risk when mouse density is low.
Diversity, decoys and the dilution effect: how ecological communities affect disease risk
This synthesis highlights the broad link between community structure and disease while underscoring the importance of mitigating ongoing changes in biological communities owing to species introductions and extirpations.
Global drivers of human pathogen richness and prevalence
A global analysis of the relative influence of climate, alternative host diversity and spending on disease prevention on modern patterns in the richness and prevalence of human pathogens finds that for human health, the prevalence of key human pathogens is strongly influenced by disease control efforts.
Ecology Drives the Worldwide Distribution of Human Diseases
It is proposed that the global latitudinal species diversity gradient might be generated in large part by biotic interactions, providing strong support for the idea that current estimates of species diversity are substantially underestimated.
A conceptual model of the “dilution effect” of the transmission of vector-borne zoonotic diseases is explored, whereby the presence of vertebrate hosts with a low capacity to infect feeding vectors dilute the effect of highly competent reservoirs, thus reducing disease risk.
Biodiversity Loss Affects Global Disease Ecology
It is proposed that habitat destruction and biodiversity loss associated with biotic homogenization can increase the incidence and distribution of infectious diseases affecting humans.