Biodiversity (Communications arising): Maize transgene results in Mexico are artefacts (see editorial footnote)

  title={Biodiversity (Communications arising): Maize transgene results in Mexico are artefacts (see editorial footnote)},
  author={Nicholas J. Kaplinsky and David M. Braun and Damon Lisch and Angela Hay and Sarah Hake and Michael Freeling},
Quist and Chapela's conclusion that the transgenes they claim to have detected in native maize in Oaxaca, Mexico, are predominantly reassorted and inserted into a “diversity of genomic contexts” seems to be based on an artefact arising from the inverse polymerase chain reaction (i-PCR) they used to amplify sequences flanking 35S transgenes from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV). 

Maize and Biodiversity : The Effects of Transgenic Maize in Mexico Chapter 1 Context and Background on Maize and its Wild Relatives in Mexico for the Article 13 Initative on Maize and Biodiversity Prepared

Note: Ten chapters were prepared as background for the work of the Maize Advisory Group and for input to the public symposium, held 11 March 2004, in Oaxaca as part of the CEC Article 13 study on

Transgenes in Mexican maize: molecular evidence and methodological considerations for GMO detection in landrace populations

Analytical and sampling considerations help explain discrepancies among different detection efforts, and provide considerations for the establishment of monitoring protocols to detect the presence of transgenes among structured populations of landraces, suggest the persistence or re‐introduction of transGenes up until 2004 in this area.

Detecting (trans)gene flow to landraces in centers of crop origin: lessons from the case of maize in Mexico.

Using estimates of Ne based on Ortiz-García et al.'s n, it is estimated that transgenes could be present in maize landraces in the Sierra Juárez region at frequencies of approximately 1-4%, and are more likely to bepresent in the 90% of Oaxacan landrace area that is not mountainous.

Transgene flow in Mexican maize revisited: Socio‐biological analysis across two contrasting farmer communities and seed management systems

It is argued that future analysis of transgene presence should include social research on the seed management practices in the sampling area so that more robust and comprehensive understandings and conclusions can be drawn.

Traditional Mexican Agricultural Systems and the Potential Impacts of Transgenic Varieties on Maize Diversity

The discovery of transgenes in maize landraces in Mexico, a center of diversity for this crop, raises questions about the potential impact of transgene diffusion on maize diversity and farmers’ role in maintaining diversity.

Absence of detectable transgenes in local landraces of maize in Oaxaca, Mexico (2003-2004).

It is concluded that transgenic maize seeds were absent or extremely rare in the sampled fields, providing a much-needed preliminary baseline for understanding the biological, socioeconomic, and ethical implications of the inadvertent dispersal of transgenes from the United States and elsewhere to local landraces of maize in Mexico.

Detecting adventitious transgenic events in a maize center of diversity

This research could not detect, at the 95% probability level, transgenes in farmers' fields in the valley of Barranca, where there were recent claims of authorized transgenic maize grown.

Corn Culture and Dangerous DNA: Real and Imagined Consequences of Maize Transgene Flow in Oaxaca

"Genetic pollution" in Oaxaca has become Exhibit A for critics of crop genetic engineering and the focus of angry charges and counterclaims by biotechnology researchers. Like many disputes about

Genetic fallout in bio-cultural landscapes: Molecular imperialism and the cultural politics of (not) seeing transgenes in Mexico

This article explores the trajectory of the global controversy over the introgression (or not) of transgenes from genetically modified maize into Mexican indigenous maize landraces and analyzed how a particular in vitro based DNA-centered knowledge came to marginalize other forms of knowledge, thus obscuring other bio-cultural dimensions key to the understanding of gene flow and maize diversity.



Transgenic DNA introgressed into traditional maize landraces in Oaxaca, Mexico

The presence of introgressed transgenic DNA constructs in native maize landraces grown in remote mountains in Oaxaca, Mexico, part of the Mesoamerican centre of origin and diversification of this crop is reported.

Event Specific Transgene Detection in Bt11 Corn by Quantitative PCR at the Integration Site

The integration border was subsequently used to develop a novel and unambiguous PCR detection system covering the integration border at the 5′ site of the transgene, and the genomic sequence showed high similarities with a corn-specific 180 bp knob-associated repeat region.

Nested Retrotransposons in the Intergenic Regions of the Maize Genome

Diagnostic sequencing indicated that a 280-kilobase region containing the maize Adh1-F and u22 genes is composed primarily of retrotransposons inserted within each other, and ten retroelement families were discovered.

Introns increase gene expression in cultured maize cells.

It is indicated that introns increase both Adh1 and chimeric gene expression in maize and the optimal location for such an intron is near the 5' end of the mRNA.