Biodiversity, Nitrogen Deposition, and CO2 Affect Grassland Soil Carbon Cycling but not Storage

  title={Biodiversity, Nitrogen Deposition, and CO2 Affect Grassland Soil Carbon Cycling but not Storage},
  author={Joseph Pignatello Reid and E. Carol Adair and Sarah E. Hobbie and Peter B. Reich},
Grasslands are globally widespread and capable of storing large amounts of carbon (C) in soils, and are generally experiencing increasing atmospheric CO2, nitrogen (N) deposition, and biodiversity losses. To better understand whether grasslands will act as C sources or sinks in the future we measured microbial respiration in long-term laboratory incubations of soils collected from a grassland field experiment after 9 years of factorial treatment of atmospheric CO2, N deposition, and plant… 
Sensitivity of grassland carbon pools to plant diversity, elevated CO2, and soil nitrogen addition over 19 years
Investigating how manipulations of CO2, soil nitrogen supply, and plant species richness influenced total ecosystem C storage over 19 y in a free-air CO2 enrichment grassland experiment in Minnesota calls into question whether elevated CO2 will increase the soil C sink in grassland ecosystems, and suggests that losses of biodiversity may influence C storage as much as or more than increasing CO2 or high rates of N deposition in perennial grassland systems.
Long-Term Nitrogen Addition Does Not Increase Soil Carbon Storage or Cycling Across Eight Temperate Forest and Grassland Sites on a Sandy Outwash Plain
Experimental nitrogen (N) deposition generally inhibits decomposition and promotes carbon (C) accumulation in soils, but with substantial variation among studies. Differences in ecosystem properties
Cumulative response of ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks to chronic CO2 exposure in a subtropical oak woodland
These findings challenge the treatment of terrestrial ecosystems responses to elevated CO2 in current biogeochemical models, where the effect of elevatedCO2 on ecosystem C balance is described as enhanced photosynthesis and plant growth with decomposition as a first-order response.
Accumulation of soil carbon under elevated CO2 unaffected by warming and drought
The robust increase in soil C under eCO2 observed here, even when combined with other climate change factors, suggests that there is continued and strong potential for enhanced soil carbon sequestration in some ecosystems to mitigate increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations under future climate conditions.
Nitrogen addition changes grassland soil organic matter decomposition
Humans have dramatically increased the deposition and availability of nutrients, such as nitrogen (N), worldwide. Soil organic matter (SOM) is a significant global reservoir of carbon (C); however,
Fertilization with nitrogen and/or phosphorus lowers soil organic carbon sequestration in alpine meadows
Nutrient additions can increase carbon (C) inputs to soil, but there is no consensus about the response of soil organic C (SOC) storage and C sequestration. For the Tibetan alpine meadows, little is
Effects of plant diversity on soil carbon in diverse ecosystems: a global meta‐analysis
The importance of plant diversity preservation for the maintenance of soil carbon sequestration in discussions of global climate change policy is highlighted, as both SOC content and stock are on average 5 and 8% higher in species mixtures than in monocultures.


Plant functional composition influences rates of soil carbon and nitrogen accumulation
It is demonstrated that plant functional complementarity is a key reason why higher plant diversity leads to greater soil C and N accumulation on agriculturally degraded soils and suggested the combination of key C4 grass‐legume species may greatly increase ecosystem services such as soil C accumulation and biomass (biofuel) production in both high- and low-diversity N-limited grassland systems.
Divergent effects of elevated CO2, N fertilization, and plant diversity on soil C and N dynamics in a grassland field experiment
While increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations, increased N deposition, and changes in plant diversity have all been shown to significantly alter soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics, the
Potential nitrogen constraints on soil carbon sequestration under low and elevated atmospheric CO2.
The observed reallocation of N from soil to plants over the last three years of the experiment supports the PNL theory that reductions in N availability with rising Ca could initially be overcome by a transfer ofN from lowC:N ratio fractions to those with higher C:N ratios.
Interactive Effects of Time, CO2, N, and Diversity on Total Belowground Carbon Allocation and Ecosystem Carbon Storage in a Grassland Community
Predicting if ecosystems will mitigate or exacerbate rising CO2 requires understanding how elevated CO2 will interact with coincident changes in diversity and nitrogen (N) availability to affect
Soil processes affected by sixteen grassland species grown under different environmental conditions
Plant species, and their interactions with the environment, determine both the quantity and chemistry of organic matter inputs to soils. Indeed, countless studies have linked the quality of organic
Plant diversity enhances ecosystem responses to elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition
It is found that the enhanced biomass accumulation in response to elevated levels of CO2 or nitrogen, or their combination, is less in species-poor than inspecies-rich assemblages.
The response of soil CO2 flux to changes in atmospheric CO2, nitrogen supply and plant diversity
We measured soil CO2 flux over 19 sampling periods that spanned two growing seasons in a grassland Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experiment that factorially manipulated three major
Variable effects of nitrogen additions on the stability and turnover of soil carbon
This work shows that nitrogen additions significantly accelerate decomposition of light soil carbon fractions (with decadal turnover times) while further stabilizing soil carbon compounds in heavier, mineral-associated fractions ( with multidecadal to century lifetimes).
Nitrogen deposition and plant species interact to influence soil carbon stabilization
Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition effects on soil organic carbon (C) decomposition remain controversial, while the role of plant species composition in mediating effects of N deposition on soil