The biodistribution of nanoparticles is a major subject of current nanomedical research. To date, however, the exact investigation of nanoparticle fate in the microenvironment of a main excretory organ, the kidney has largely been neglected. In this study, the biodistribution of polyethylene glycol-coated quantum dots (Qdots) with special focus on their interaction with the kidney is investigated. Upon intravenous injection, nanoparticles showed effective blood circulation in mice and significant renal accumulation after two hours. Histological analysis of the kidney revealed that Qdots were strongly associated to the intraglomerular mesangial cells. This preferential deposition of nanoparticles in the kidney mesangium is highly promising, since it could be of utmost value for site-specific treatment of severe kidney diseases like diabetic nephropathy in the future.