In vitro and in vivo enhancement of osteogenic capacity in a synthetic BMP-2 derived peptide-coated mineralized collagen composite.
This study investigated the effects of a newly-developed scaffold, nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide) (nHAC/PLA), on the attachment, proliferation and osteogenic capability of dog periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in vitro and in vivo. Hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP), a commonly used bone substitute, was used as a positive control. PDLSCs isolated from dog molar were incubated in an osteogenic medium to evaluate their osteogenic differentiation in vitro, and then seeded onto nHAC/PLA and HA/TCP scaffolds. In vitro cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cell counting, 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-5-[3-carboxy-phenyl]-2-[4-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium and alkaline phosphate activity, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Finally, the constructs were implanted subcutaneously into dogs to investigate their osteogenic capacity. After osteogenic induction for 21 days, PDLSCs differentiated into osteogenic lineage, as indicated by the expressions of osteoblastic differentiation genes CoL-I, OCN and OPN mRNA, and the formation of mineral deposits. When seeded onto scaffolds, the cells attached and spread well, and retained their osteogenic phenotypes on both scaffolds. Comparatively, cell number and proliferative viability on nHAC/PLA constructs were greater than those on HA/TCP constructs (P < 0.05). Histological results showed that new bone and osteoid was formed in both groups, and histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that the amount of newly formed bone in the nHAC/PLA group was higher than that in the HA/TCP group (P < 0.05). This study suggests that nHAC/PLA can be used as a potent scaffold for alveolar bone regeneration.