Biocides in hydraulic fracturing fluids: a critical review of their usage, mobility, degradation, and toxicity.

  title={Biocides in hydraulic fracturing fluids: a critical review of their usage, mobility, degradation, and toxicity.},
  author={Genevieve A Kahrilas and Jens Blotevogel and Philip S Stewart and Thomas Borch},
  journal={Environmental science & technology},
  volume={49 1},
Biocides are critical components of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") fluids used for unconventional shale gas development. Bacteria may cause bioclogging and inhibit gas extraction, produce toxic hydrogen sulfide, and induce corrosion leading to downhole equipment failure. The use of biocides such as glutaraldehyde and quaternary ammonium compounds has spurred a public concern and debate among regulators regarding the impact of inadvertent releases into the environment on ecosystem and human… CONTINUE READING
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