Biochemistry of Cryoprotectants

@inproceedings{Storey1991BiochemistryOC,
  title={Biochemistry of Cryoprotectants},
  author={Kenneth B. Storey and Janet M Storey},
  year={1991}
}
The role of polyhydric alcohols in cryoprotection is probably the most extensively studied feature of insect cold hardiness. The importance of glycerol as a cryoprotectant was first recognized by R. W. Salt after he and others linked the presence of high levels of glycerol with winter hibernation, diapause, or freezing survival (Salt, 1957, 1959, 1961; Wyatt and Kalf, 1957; Chino, 1957). Over the last 30 years, literally hundreds of publications have described the occurrence of glycerol or… 
A mixture of innate cryoprotectants is key for freeze tolerance and cryopreservation of a drosophilid fly larva
TLDR
It is proposed that amorphous glass and viscoelastic liquids may protect macromolecules and cells from thermomechanical shocks associated with freezing and transfer into and out of liquid nitrogen.
Organic solutes in freezing tolerance.
  • K. Storey
  • Biology
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Physiology
  • 1997
Regulation of hexokinase in a freeze avoiding insect: role in the winter production of glycerol.
TLDR
Comparison of hexokinase kinetic properties at 22 degrees and 4 degrees C showed higher affinity for both glucose and ATP, as well as for the cofactor Mg(2+), at the lower temperature, and product inhibition by glucose-6-phosphate and ADP was reduced at4 degrees C.
Cryoprotectant Biosynthesis and the Selective Accumulation of Threitol in the Freeze-tolerant Alaskan Beetle, Upis ceramboides*
TLDR
In vitro experiments show that threitol is synthesized from erythrose 4-phosphate, a C4 intermediate in the PPP, and appears to be the preferred substrate of the sugar phosphatase(s), promotingThreitol synthesis over that of erystritol.
Cryoprotective role of polyols independent of the increase in supercooling capacity in diapausing adults of Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Insecta).
Molecular biology of freezing tolerance.
TLDR
More recent advances in knowledge of the genes and proteins that support freeze tolerance and the metabolic regulatory mechanisms involved are providing a much more complete picture of life in the frozen state.
Changes in Chemical Composition and Accumulation of Cryoprotectants as the Adaptation of Anholocyclic Aphid Cinara tujafilina to Overwintering
TLDR
Glucose, trehalose, mannitol, myo-inositol and glycerol were identified in the aphid body in winter as main putative cryoprotectants to increase the insects’ tolerance to cold and facilitate aphids’ survival in unfavorable low temperatures.
Chaperone proteins and winter survival by a freeze tolerant insect.
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References

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The chemistry of insect hemolymph. II. Trehalose and other carbohydrates.
TLDR
α,α-Trehalose, a sugar previously regarded as a product characteristic of certain lower plants, has been identified as a major blood sugar of insects and determined quantitatively with anthrone after either chromatographic separation or chemical degradation of other sugars.
Physiology of cold tolerance in insects.
TLDR
Future research should be focused on the possible role of other factors in cold hardening such as bound water, dehydration, low-molecular-weight solutes other than polyols, and the biochemical mechanisms forming the basis of the seasonal changes in the cold hardiness of insects.
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