Biochemistry and physiology of anabolic hormones used for improvement of meat production

  title={Biochemistry and physiology of anabolic hormones used for improvement of meat production},
  author={Heinrich H. D. Meyer},
  • H. Meyer
  • Published 1 July 2001
  • Biology, Medicine
A number of hormones are involved in endocrine regulation of growth. In general, these hormones enhance body protein accretion and metabolise fat stores resulting in increased lean growth rates. Most practical importance was obtained by sex hormones (oestrogens and androgens), β‐agonists and growth hormone — whether legally or illegally. Efficiency of growth promotion ranges between 0% and +20% depending on the prerequisites such as species, breed, gender, age, reproductive status, body score… 

Effect of trenbolone acetate plus estradiol on transcriptional regulation of metabolism pathways in bovine liver

Several biochemical pathways showed different regulations on mRNA level under the influence of trenbolone acetate plus estradiol, which seems to support growth processes and inhibition of nutrient metabolism and protein breakdown in bovine liver.

Hormones in international meat production: biological, sociological and consumer issues

The hormone issue is considered in the context of current international social methodology and regulation, recent advances in knowledge of biological activity of hormones and current status of science-based evaluation of food safety and risk for human consumers.

Impact of Ergot Alkaloid and Estradiol 17B on Whole-Body Protein Turnover and Expression of mTOR Pathway Proteins in Muscle of Cattle

Fescue-derived alkaloids are detrimental to growing cattle in terms of overall glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism and western immunoblot analysis of skeletal muscle showed that it did not affect abundance of S6K1 or 4E-BP1, so does not appear to inhibit activation of the mTOR pathway or protein synthesis.


Concentrations of the natural hormones 17β-estradiol, progesterone and testosterone were determined in bovine plasma according to animal age and sex, indicated that illegal use of anabolic substances could not be suspected in none of the study animals.

Hormone use in food-animal production: Dietary exposure of consumers and public health significance

Hormones are chemical substances naturally secreted in the body that regulate a wide range of physiological functions. However, during the last decades many cases of their illegal anabolic use in

Chronic exposure to anabolic steroids induces the muscle expression of oxytocin and a more than fiftyfold increase in circulating oxytocin in cattle.

A re-investigation of in vivo cattle LD muscle samples during early to mid-fetal development identified a >128-fold increased expression of OXT, coincident with myofiber differentiation and fusion, which is proposed to be involved in mediating the anabolic effects of Revalor-H treatment.

Identification of Metabolites of Trenbolone Acetate in Androgenic Runoff from a Beef Feedlot

Evaluated the occurrence of 17α- and 17β-trenbolone in a beef cattle feedlot discharge and in river water upstream and downstream from the discharge and measured in vitro androgenic activity of the discharge using CV-1 cells that had been transiently cotrans infected with human androgen receptor and reporter gene constructs.

Effects of the androgenic growth promoter 17‐β‐trenbolone on fecundity and reproductive endocrinology of the fathead minnow

The studies indicate that 17‐β‐trenbolone is a potent androgen and reproductive toxicant in fish and further studies are warranted to assess potential ecological risk.

Growth performance in heavy lambs experimentally treated with 17 ß-estradiol

This study confirmed the strong correlation between clinical and anatomopathological features and growth performances of treated animals and no significant differences were found on in vivo performance of the lambs.

Effects of a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor on ovarian function in cattle.

Treatment with letrozole increased endogenous concentrations of LH and extended the lifespan of the dominant follicle, which delayed the next FSH surge and subsequent follicular wave emergence, and continues to have potential as a non-steroidal treatment for controlling ovarian function in cattle.



Interrelationships between sex and exogenous growth hormone administration on performance, body composition and protein and fat accretion of growing pigs.

Pigs used in this study and treated with pGH exhibited a rate of protein deposition far greater than previously reported, and as such redefine the genetic capacity for lean tissue growth by the pig.

Expression of estrogen and androgen receptor in the bovine gastrointestinal tract.

Comparing the ER expression in rumen from females of different reproductive stages, it was found that no differences related to cycle stage, pregnancy or parturition could be detected, indicating that there might be a tissue specific regulation of ER.

Androgen and estrogen receptors in bovine skeletal muscle: relation to steroid-induced allometric muscle growth.

The pronounced sensitivity to estrogens and androgens in the neck, shoulder, and hind leg of calves, being free of the respective hormone, may partly explain the characteristic conformation in calves treated with estrogenic and androgenic steroids and the sexual dimorphism of muscle growth.

Divergent Effects of Estrogens on the Somatotropic Axis in Male and Female Calves

It is concluded that the observed sex differences of GH-secretion in response to E2 are related to endogenous testosterone, and the E2-stimulated increase of IGF-1 plasma concentrations in males appears as related to an altered GH responsiveness rather than to changes in GH secretory patterns.

The somatotrophic axis in young steers: influence of nutritional status and oestradiol-17 beta on hepatic high- and low-affinity somatotrophic binding sites.

The binding of bovine GH to hepatic membranes obtained from steers on either high or low planes of nutrition with or without an oestradiol-17 beta implant was studied, suggesting the presence of a high- and low-affinity binding site, the high-Affinity site being fully occupied in the absence of MgCl2 pretreatment.

Estrogen receptor in bovine skeletal muscle.

Results clearly demonstrate that skeletal muscle also contains estradiol receptors with identical properties, indicating that one possible component of the anabolic action of estrogens may be the direct stimulation of the muscle via the est radiol receptor.

Characterisation of the affinity of different anabolics and synthetic hormones to the human androgen receptor, human sex hormone binding globulin and to the bovine progestin receptor

It is concluded that MGA and TBA metabolites may be hor‐monally active substances, which will be present in edible tissues and in manure, and detailed investigations on biodegradation, distribution and bio‐efficacy of these substances are necessary.