Biochemistry and molecular biology of anammox bacteria

@article{Jetten2009BiochemistryAM,
  title={Biochemistry and molecular biology of anammox bacteria},
  author={Mike S. M. Jetten and Laura van Niftrik and Marc Strous and Boran Kartal and Jan T. Keltjens and Huub J. M. Op den Camp},
  journal={Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology},
  year={2009},
  volume={44},
  pages={65 - 84}
}
Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are one of the latest additions to the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. These bacteria derive their energy for growth from the conversion of ammonium and nitrite into dinitrogen gas in the complete absence of oxygen. These slowly growing microorganisms belong to the order Brocadiales and are affiliated to the Planctomycetes. Anammox bacteria are characterized by a compartmentalized cell architecture featuring a central cell compartment, the… Expand
Unique Organelles in Planctomycetes
Anammox bacteria convert ammonium and nitrite to dinitrogen gas under anaerobic conditions to obtain their energy for growth. The anammox reaction was deemed impossible until its discovery in theExpand
Cell biology of unique anammox bacteria that contain an energy conserving prokaryotic organelle
TLDR
The current knowledge on the cell biology of anammox bacteria is reviewed, proposing to have an atypical cell wall devoid of both peptidoglycan and a typical outer membrane. Expand
Hydrazine Synthase, a Unique Phylomarker with Which To Study the Presence and Biodiversity of Anammox Bacteria
TLDR
Developed PCR primer sets targeting a subunit of the hydrazine synthase (hzsA), which represents a unique phylogenetic marker for anammox bacteria, were able to retrieve hzsA gene sequences fromanammox enrichment cultures, full-scale anamm ox wastewater treatment systems, and a variety of freshwater and marine environmental samples. Expand
Cell Biology of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria: Unique Prokaryotes with an Energy-Conserving Intracellular Compartment
TLDR
This chapter digs a little deeper into the energy metabolism of the cell where it is discovered that anammox bacteria also show generalist as well as specialist behavior in relation to substrates and electron donors and acceptors. Expand
Anammoxosome in Anaerobic Ammonium-oxidizing Bacteria – was It Originated from Endosymbiosis?
TLDR
A plausible mechanism for the origin of anammoxosome is proposed, in which anaerobic archaea with capability of metabolizing ammonium and nitrite are thought to gain advantages for survival with reciprocal metabolisms and eventually established as stable endosymbiont under the given environmental conditions by invading into a bacterial cell. Expand
Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria: Unique Microorganisms with Exceptional Properties
SUMMARY Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria defy many microbiological concepts and share numerous properties with both eukaryotes and archaea. Among their most intriguing characteristicsExpand
Anammox--growth physiology, cell biology, and metabolism.
TLDR
Recent research established that anammox bacteria owe their position in the N-cycle to their unique property to oxidize ammonium in the absence of oxygen, using the oxidizing power of nitric oxide (NO). Expand
The ultrastructure of the compartmentalized anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria is linked to their energy metabolism.
TLDR
The present review summarizes the knowledge about the ultrastructure of anammox cells and the connection between theAnammoxosome and the energy metabolism of the cell and suggests the unusual subcellular organization may well be essential for the lifestyle of anamsox bacteria. Expand
Resolving the complete genome of Kuenenia stuttgartiensis from a membrane bioreactor enrichment using Single-Molecule Real-Time sequencing
TLDR
The first closed genome sequence of an anammox bacterium, Kuenenia stuttgartiensis MBR1, is presented, including the genome-wide methylation profile, which provides a new foundation for comparative and functional studies aiming to elucidate the biochemical and metabolic processes of these organisms. Expand
Identification of the type II cytochrome c maturation pathway in anammox bacteria by comparative genomics
TLDR
The working model suggests that this machinery is localized at the anammoxosome membrane which is assumed to be the locus of anamm ox catabolism, and will stimulate further studies in dissecting the molecular and cellular basis of cytochrome c biogenesis inAnammox bacteria. Expand
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Anammox bacteria perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation to dinitrogen gas and belong to the phylum Planctomycetes. Whereas most Prokaryotes consist of one compartment, the cytoplasm bounded by theExpand
Global impact and application of the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria.
TLDR
The localization of the major anammox protein, hydrazine oxidoreductase, was determined via immunogold labelling to be inside the anamm oxosome, and it was suggested that theAnammox bacteria may also use organic acids to convert nitrate and nitrite into dinitrogen gas when ammonia is in short supply. Expand
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TLDR
The enrichment and characterization of two marine Scalindua species are described, the anammox genus that dominates almost all natural habitats investigated so far, which showed a nitrate-dependent use of formate, acetate and propionate, and performed a formate-dependent reduction of nitrate, Fe(III) and Mn(IV). Expand
Deciphering the evolution and metabolism of an anammox bacterium from a community genome
TLDR
This work uses environmental genomics—the reconstruction of genomic data directly from the environment—to assemble the genome of the uncultured anammox bacterium Kuenenia stuttgartiensis from a complex bioreactor community, and identifies candidate genes responsible for ladderane biosynthesis and biological hydrazine metabolism. Expand
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TLDR
Molecular techniques showed the presence of organisms affiliated with the anammox branch within the Planctomycetes in all these wastewater treatment plants, and 16S rRNA gene analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and tracer experiments with [15N]ammonia showed the link between theAnammox reaction and the occurrence of theanammox bacterium “Candidatus Scalindua sorokinii”. Expand
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TLDR
Evidence for bacteria that anaerobically oxidize ammonium with nitrite to N2 in the world's largest anoxic basin, the Black Sea is provided and anammox bacteria have been identified and directly linked to the removal of fixed inorganic nitrogen in the environment. Expand
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TLDR
Evidence is presented that dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium occurs in Benguela upwelling system at the same site where anammox bacteria were previously detected, indicating that anamm Oxidizing bacteria could be mediating Dissimilatory Nitrate reductionto ammonium in natural ecosystems. Expand
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TLDR
Current evidence for the relative importance of bacteria and archaea in the global nitrogen cycle is reviewed, based on metagenomic analysis and molecular techniques for estimation of gene and gene transcript abundance, changes in ammonia oxidizer community structure during active nitrification and phylogeny of natural communities. Expand
Potential Interactions of Particle-Associated Anammox Bacteria with Bacterial and Archaeal Partners in the Namibian Upwelling System
TLDR
It is hypothesized that members of Gammaproteobacteria, AlphaproteOBacteria, and Bacteroidetes play a critical role in extending the anammox reaction to nutrient-depleted suboxic water layers in the Namibian upwelling system by creating anoxic, nutrient-enriched microniches. Expand
Anaerobic Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria and Related Activity in Baltimore Inner Harbor Sediment
TLDR
The first report of anammox activity and related bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from the Chesapeake Bay basin area are reported, and the results suggest that this pathway plays an important role in the nitrogen cycle of this estuarine environment. Expand
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