Biochemistry and molecular biology of anammox bacteria

  title={Biochemistry and molecular biology of anammox bacteria},
  author={Mike S. M. Jetten and Laura van Niftrik and Marc Strous and Boran Kartal and Jan TM Keltjens and Huub J. M. op den Camp},
  journal={Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology},
  pages={65 - 84}
Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are one of the latest additions to the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. These bacteria derive their energy for growth from the conversion of ammonium and nitrite into dinitrogen gas in the complete absence of oxygen. These slowly growing microorganisms belong to the order Brocadiales and are affiliated to the Planctomycetes. Anammox bacteria are characterized by a compartmentalized cell architecture featuring a central cell compartment, the… 

Unique Organelles in Planctomycetes

Anammox bacteria convert ammonium and nitrite to dinitrogen gas under anaerobic conditions to obtain their energy for growth. The anammox reaction was deemed impossible until its discovery in the

Hydrazine Synthase, a Unique Phylomarker with Which To Study the Presence and Biodiversity of Anammox Bacteria

Developed PCR primer sets targeting a subunit of the hydrazine synthase (hzsA), which represents a unique phylogenetic marker for anammox bacteria, were able to retrieve hzsA gene sequences fromanammox enrichment cultures, full-scale anamm ox wastewater treatment systems, and a variety of freshwater and marine environmental samples.

Cell Biology of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria: Unique Prokaryotes with an Energy-Conserving Intracellular Compartment

This chapter digs a little deeper into the energy metabolism of the cell where it is discovered that anammox bacteria also show generalist as well as specialist behavior in relation to substrates and electron donors and acceptors.

Anammoxosome in Anaerobic Ammonium-oxidizing Bacteria – was It Originated from Endosymbiosis?

A plausible mechanism for the origin of anammoxosome is proposed, in which anaerobic archaea with capability of metabolizing ammonium and nitrite are thought to gain advantages for survival with reciprocal metabolisms and eventually established as stable endosymbiont under the given environmental conditions by invading into a bacterial cell.

Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria: Unique Microorganisms with Exceptional Properties

SUMMARY Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria defy many microbiological concepts and share numerous properties with both eukaryotes and archaea. Among their most intriguing characteristics

Anammox--growth physiology, cell biology, and metabolism.

The ultrastructure of the compartmentalized anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria is linked to their energy metabolism.

The present review summarizes the knowledge about the ultrastructure of anammox cells and the connection between theAnammoxosome and the energy metabolism of the cell and suggests the unusual subcellular organization may well be essential for the lifestyle of anamsox bacteria.

Resolving the complete genome of Kuenenia stuttgartiensis from a membrane bioreactor enrichment using Single-Molecule Real-Time sequencing

The first closed genome sequence of an anammox bacterium, Kuenenia stuttgartiensis MBR1, is presented, including the genome-wide methylation profile, which provides a new foundation for comparative and functional studies aiming to elucidate the biochemical and metabolic processes of these organisms.

Genomics of Ammonica-Oxidizing Bacteria and Insights into Their Evolution

This chapter talks about ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), addresses the inventory involved in nitrification, attempts metabolic reconstruction of N transformation processes, and provides insights

How to make a living from anaerobic ammonium oxidation.

An analysis of the metabolic opportunities of anammox bacteria suggests alternative chemolithotrophic lifestyles that are independent of these compounds, and current concepts are still largely hypothetical and put forward the most intriguing questions that need experimental answers.



Cell biology of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria

The research presented in this thesis uses a combination of genome analysis, molecular tools and transmission electron microscopy including electron tomography to investigate whether the anammoxosome is a true bacterial organelle: a separate compartment with a specific function inside the cell, and results obtained support both the hypothesis and the results obtained suggest that anamm ox bacteria have evolved a trueacterial organelle with a similar function as the eukaryotic mitochondrion: energy metabolism.

Global impact and application of the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria.

The localization of the major anammox protein, hydrazine oxidoreductase, was determined via immunogold labelling to be inside the anamm oxosome, and it was suggested that theAnammox bacteria may also use organic acids to convert nitrate and nitrite into dinitrogen gas when ammonia is in short supply.

Enrichment and characterization of marine anammox bacteria associated with global nitrogen gas production.

The enrichment and characterization of two marine Scalindua species are described, the anammox genus that dominates almost all natural habitats investigated so far, which showed a nitrate-dependent use of formate, acetate and propionate, and performed a formate-dependent reduction of nitrate, Fe(III) and Mn(IV).

Deciphering the evolution and metabolism of an anammox bacterium from a community genome

This work uses environmental genomics—the reconstruction of genomic data directly from the environment—to assemble the genome of the uncultured anammox bacterium Kuenenia stuttgartiensis from a complex bioreactor community, and identifies candidate genes responsible for ladderane biosynthesis and biological hydrazine metabolism.

Biomarkers for In Situ Detection of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox) Bacteria

Molecular techniques showed the presence of organisms affiliated with the anammox branch within the Planctomycetes in all these wastewater treatment plants, and 16S rRNA gene analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and tracer experiments with [15N]ammonia showed the link between theAnammox reaction and the occurrence of theanammox bacterium “Candidatus Scalindua sorokinii”.

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by anammox bacteria in the Black Sea

Evidence for bacteria that anaerobically oxidize ammonium with nitrite to N2 in the world's largest anoxic basin, the Black Sea is provided and anammox bacteria have been identified and directly linked to the removal of fixed inorganic nitrogen in the environment.

Anammox bacteria disguised as denitrifiers: nitrate reduction to dinitrogen gas via nitrite and ammonium.

Evidence is presented that dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium occurs in Benguela upwelling system at the same site where anammox bacteria were previously detected, indicating that anamm Oxidizing bacteria could be mediating Dissimilatory Nitrate reductionto ammonium in natural ecosystems.

Relative contributions of archaea and bacteria to aerobic ammonia oxidation in the environment.

Current evidence for the relative importance of bacteria and archaea in the global nitrogen cycle is reviewed, based on metagenomic analysis and molecular techniques for estimation of gene and gene transcript abundance, changes in ammonia oxidizer community structure during active nitrification and phylogeny of natural communities.

Potential Interactions of Particle-Associated Anammox Bacteria with Bacterial and Archaeal Partners in the Namibian Upwelling System

It is hypothesized that members of Gammaproteobacteria, AlphaproteOBacteria, and Bacteroidetes play a critical role in extending the anammox reaction to nutrient-depleted suboxic water layers in the Namibian upwelling system by creating anoxic, nutrient-enriched microniches.

Anaerobic Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria and Related Activity in Baltimore Inner Harbor Sediment

The first report of anammox activity and related bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from the Chesapeake Bay basin area are reported, and the results suggest that this pathway plays an important role in the nitrogen cycle of this estuarine environment.