Biochemistry, pharmacology and physiology of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, an endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand.

  title={Biochemistry, pharmacology and physiology of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, an endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand.},
  author={Takayuki Sugiura and Seishi Kishimoto and Saori Oka and Maiko Gokoh},
  journal={Progress in lipid research},
  volume={45 5},

Resorcinol-sn-glycerol derivatives: novel 2-arachidonoylglycerol mimetics endowed with high affinity and selectivity for cannabinoid type 1 receptor.

The cannabinoid receptor binding properties, the CB1 functional activity, and the stability to plasma esterases of a novel series of compounds characterized by the conversion of the amide head into the glycerol-ester or glycerl-ether head, typical of 2-AG or the "putative" endocannabinoid 2-AGE, respectively are explored.

Biosynthesis and degradation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol.

Rapid advances in enzymological research are outlined on the biosynthetic and degradative pathways of 2-AG, a monoacylglycerol molecule containing an esterified arachidonic acid chain at sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone.

Signal transduction of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor.

Evidence exists that CB(1)Rs can also stimulate adenylyl cyclase via G, induce receptor-mediated Ca(2+) fluxes and stimulate phospholipases in some experimental models, and the altered pharmacological properties of these receptor complexes may explain the pharmacological differences observed in various tissues.

Signal transduction of the CB 1 cannabinoid receptor

Recent data also suggest that CB1Rs can form homoand heterodimers/oligomers, and the altered pharmacological properties of these receptor complexes may explain the pharmacological differences observed in cannabinoid compounds released in response to depolarization and Ca-mobilizing hormones.

Stimulatory and inhibitory roles of brain 2-arachidonoylglycerol in bombesin-induced central activation of adrenomedullary outflow in rats.

Bidirectional roles of brain 2-AG, a stimulatory role as an AA precursor and an inhibitory roles as an endocannabinoid, are indicated in the bombesin-induced central adrenomedullary outflow in rats.

The Endogenous Cannabinoid 2-Arachidonoylglycerol Is Intravenously Self-Administered by Squirrel Monkeys

Intravenous 2-AG was a very effective reinforcer of drug-taking behavior, maintaining higher numbers of self-administered injections per session and higher rates of responding than vehicle across a wide range of doses.

[Role of endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol in the physiology and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system].

Accumulating evidence reveals that 2-AG is involved in the pathogenesis of various shocks and atherosclerosis, and may be a novel attractive therapeutic target.

Brain regional cannabinoid CB(1) receptor signalling and alternative enzymatic pathways for 2-arachidonoylglycerol generation in brain sections of diacylglycerol lipase deficient mice.

2-Arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoinositol: a possible natural ligand for GPR55.

This study examined whether LPI is present in rat brain and compared the biological activities of various molecular species of LPI and related molecules using HEK293 cells expressing GPR55, finding that the level of biological activity of the 2-arachidonoyl species is markedly higher than those of others.



Cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands.

Results of structure-activity relationship experiments revealed that 2-arachidonoylglycerol, but not anandamide, is the intrinsic natural ligand for the cannabinoid receptor.

Evidence That the Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Is a 2-Arachidonoylglycerol Receptor

The results strongly suggested that the cannabinoid CB1 receptor is originally a 2-arachidonoylglycerol receptor, and 2-Arachidonoyslglycersol is the intrinsic physiological ligand for the cannabinoidCB1 receptor.

2-arachidonoylglycerol, an endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand, induces rapid actin polymerization in HL-60 cells differentiated into macrophage-like cells.

2-AG induces rapid morphological changes such as the extension of pseudopods and provokes a rapid actin polymerization in differentiated HL-60 cells, which express the CB2 receptor, and is proposed to be the true natural ligand for both the CB1 and CB2 receptors.

Metabolism and physiological significance of anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligands

The metabolism and possible physiological significance of these molecules in mammalian tissues and cells including inflammatory cells and immune competent cells are described.

Evidence That 2-Arachidonoylglycerol but Not N-Palmitoylethanolamine or Anandamide Is the Physiological Ligand for the Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor

2-arachidonoylglycerol is the most potent compound among a number of naturally occurring cannabimimetic molecules, and anandamide and N-palmitoylethanolamine, other putative endogenous ligands, were found to be a weak partial agonist and an inactive ligand, respectively.

Effects of putative cannabinoid receptor ligands, anandamide and 2-arachidonyl-glycerol, on immune function in B6C3F1 mouse splenocytes.

The objective of the present studies was to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of both of these ligands in B6C3F1 mouse splenocytes and found that at high cell density, 2-Ara-Gl enhanced lymphoproliferation whereas exhibiting marked inhibitory activity at low cell density was at least dependent in part on cell density.

P2X7 receptors control 2-arachidonoylglycerol production by microglial cells.

It is shown that ATP increases 2-AG production by cultured microglial cells in a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C and DG lipase-dependent manner, and that activation of P2X(7) ionotropic receptors, which are highly permeable to calcium, is necessary and sufficient to increase 2- AG production in microglia cells.

Evidence for the Involvement of the Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor and Its Endogenous Ligand 2-Arachidonoylglycerol in 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced Acute Inflammation in Mouse Ear*

It is found that the amount of 2-arachidonoylglycerol was markedly augmented in inflamed mouse ear, suggesting that the CB2 receptor is involved in the swelling.