Physicochemical and Nutritional Requirements for Axenic Replication Suggest Physiological Basis for Coxiella burnetii Niche Restriction
Coxiella burnetti, the etiologic agent of Q fever, is an oligate intracellular parasite of eukaryotes. Unlike the majority of successful bacterial parasites, which escape the bactericidal environment of the phagolysosome by various means, C. burnetii multiplies only in the phagolysosome. In view of the relatively harsh environment inhabited by C. burnetii, we have examined (i) the in vitro metabolism of glucose and glutamate by whole cells of C. burnetii under conditions designed to approximate the pH within the phagolysosome and (ii) the effect of manipulation of the phagolysosomal pH by lysosomotropic amines on the replication of C. burnetii in chicken embryo fibroblasts. The transport, catabolism, and incorporation of both glucose and glutamate were found to be highly stimulated by acidic conditions, whereas at pH 7.0 metabolism of these substrates was minimal. The transport processes were shown to be energy dependent and highly sensitive to inhibition by uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. Increasing the phagolysosomal pH of infected chicken embryo fibroblasts by use of the lysosomotropic agents chloroquine, methylamine, or ammonium chloride inhibited the multiplication of C. burnetii, thus demonstrating the in vivo requirement for the acidic conditions of the phagolysosome. This apparent dependence upon phagosome--lysosome fusion to generate pH conditions favorable to C. burnetii replication suggests a unique biochemical mechanism of parasite activation. A pathogenic mechanism based on regulation of microbial metabolism by H+-dependent stimulation of cell function is proposed.