Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight.

@article{Taylor2000BiobehavioralRT,
  title={Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight.},
  author={S. Earl b. Taylor and Laura Cousino Klein and Brian P. Lewis and Tara L. Gruenewald and Regan A. R. Gurung and John A Updegraff},
  journal={Psychological review},
  year={2000},
  volume={107 3},
  pages={
          411-29
        }
}
The human stress response has been characterized, both physiologically and behaviorally, as "fight-or-flight." Although fight-or-flight may characterize the primary physiological responses to stress for both males and females, we propose that, behaviorally, females' responses are more marked by a pattern of "tend-and-befriend." Tending involves nurturant activities designed to protect the self and offspring that promote safety and reduce distress; befriending is the creation and maintenance of… Expand
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It is hypothesized that stress stimulates both tendencies, but that fight-or-flight is primarily directed against a potentially hostile outgroup, moderated by rapid-acting catecholamines, while tend-and-befriend is mainly shown towards a supportive ingroup, regulated by cortisol. Expand
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It is shown that stress triggers social approach behavior, which operates as a potent stress-buffering strategy in humans, thereby providing evidence for the tend-and-befriend hypothesis. Expand
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TLDR
The results are in line with findings on the effects of stress in men, and validate the tend-and-befriend pattern as one possible behavioral response during stress in humans. Expand
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TLDR
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TLDR
It is hypothesized that stress has a time-dependent effect on social discounting, with decisions made shortly after (20min), but not 90min after stress showing increased generosity particularly to close others, and it is found that men tested 20minute after stressor onset indeed showed increased generosity towards close but not distant others. Expand
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