Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight.

  title={Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight.},
  author={Shelley E. Taylor and Laura Cousino Klein and Brian P. Lewis and Tara L. Gruenewald and Regan A R Gurung and John A Updegraff},
  journal={Psychological review},
  volume={107 3},
The human stress response has been characterized, both physiologically and behaviorally, as "fight-or-flight." Although fight-or-flight may characterize the primary physiological responses to stress for both males and females, we propose that, behaviorally, females' responses are more marked by a pattern of "tend-and-befriend." Tending involves nurturant activities designed to protect the self and offspring that promote safety and reduce distress; befriending is the creation and maintenance of… CONTINUE READING
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