Bioavailability is improved by enzymatic modification of the citrus flavonoid hesperidin in humans: a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial.

@article{Nielsen2006BioavailabilityII,
  title={Bioavailability is improved by enzymatic modification of the citrus flavonoid hesperidin in humans: a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial.},
  author={I. Nielsen and W. Chee and L. Poulsen and E. Offord-Cavin and S. E. Rasmussen and H. Frederiksen and M. Enslen and D. Barron and M. Horcajada and G. Williamson},
  journal={The Journal of nutrition},
  year={2006},
  volume={136 2},
  pages={
          404-8
        }
}
Hesperidin is the predominant polyphenol consumed from citrus fruits and juices. However, hesperidin is proposed to have limited bioavailability due to the rutinoside moiety attached to the flavonoid. The aim of this study was to demonstrate in human subjects that the removal of the rhamnose group to yield the corresponding flavonoid glucoside (i.e., hesperetin-7-glucoside) will improve the bioavailability of the aglycone hesperetin. Healthy volunteers (n=16) completed the double-blind… Expand
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Urinary excretion of Citrus flavanones and their major catabolites after consumption of fresh oranges and pasteurized orange juice: A randomized cross-over study.
TLDR
Despite 2.4-fold higher doses, excretion of flavanones from ingested fresh orange fruit did not differ from that following orange juice consumption, possibly due to a saturation of absorption or their entrapment in the fiber-rich matrix of the fruit. Expand
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TLDR
The results showed that there were no significant differences in the Tmax of the pharmacokinetic curves for the metabolites of hesperidin and narirutin following the consumption of the two styles of juices, and there were also no significant Differences in the AUC and Cmax values and percent absorption of these compounds. Expand
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