Bioavailability enhancement of verapamil HCl via intranasal chitosan microspheres.

  title={Bioavailability enhancement of verapamil HCl via intranasal chitosan microspheres.},
  author={Mamdouh Abdel Mouez and N. I. Mohd Zaki and S. Y. Mansour and Ahmed S. Geneidi},
  journal={European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences},
Chitosan microspheres are potential drug carriers for maximizing nasal residence time, circumventing rapid mucociliary clearance and enhancing nasal absorption. The aim of the present study was to develop and characterize chitosan mucoadhesive microspheres of verapamil hydrochloride (VRP) for intranasal delivery as an alternative to oral VRP which suffers low bioavailability (20%) due to extensive first pass effect. The microspheres were produced using a spray-drying and precipitation… CONTINUE READING
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