Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of intranasal hydromorphone in patients experiencing vasomotor rhinitis.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Narcotic analgesics such as hydromorphone undergo an extensive first-pass effect resulting in a low systemic bioavailability following oral administration. Alternative dosing routes, such as rectal and intranasal (IN) routes, have been suggested as options for oral or intravenous administration. Rhinitis and pharmacological agents… (More)


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