Bioavailability and Potential Uses of Vegetarian Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids: A Review of the Literature

  title={Bioavailability and Potential Uses of Vegetarian Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids: A Review of the Literature},
  author={Katie Elizabeth Lane and Emma J Derbyshire and Weili Li and Charles Stephen Brennan},
  journal={Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition},
  pages={572 - 579}
Presently alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is the most widely used vegetarian LC3PUFA, but only marginal amounts are converted into eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); both of which are strongly related to human health. Currently, fish oils represent the most prominent dietary sources of EPA and DHA; however, these are unsuitable for vegetarians. Alternative sources include flaxseed, echium, walnut, and algal oil but their conversion to EPA and DHA must be considered. The present… 
Bioavailability and conversion of plant based sources of omega-3 fatty acids – a scoping review to update supplementation options for vegetarians and vegans
Preliminary advice for vegetarians and vegans is regular consumption of preformed EPA and DHA supplements may help maintain optimal O3I, and further studies should establish optimum EPA andDHA ratios and dosages in vegetarian and vegan populations.
How do algae oils change the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids market?
The health benefits of a diet rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) no longer need to be proven. However, while health authorities attempt to increase the consumption
Alternative origins for omega-3 fatty acids in the diet
Alternative sources hold the potential to meet the demand for fish and fish oils, while reducing the negative impact on fish stocks and introducing plant-derived omega-3 to livestock feeds may enhance the Omega-3 LC PUFA content within meat and dairy products.
Healthy yogurt fortified with n-3 fatty acids from vegetable sources.
The concentration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in yogurt was increased using 5 different vegetable oils obtained from flaxseed, Camelina sativa, raspberry, blackcurrant, and Echium plantagineum to produce fortified yogurts accepted by consumers.
Hypolipidemic Effect of Alpha-Linolenic Acid Rich Blended and Interesterified of Refined Palm Olein Oil With Flaxseed Oil as Compared to Native Oil Fed Rats
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is the only source of omega-3 fatty acids for the vegetarian section of population and can convert to EPA and DHA, which has many health benefits.
Bioavailability of long-chain n-3 fatty acids from enriched meals and from microencapsulated powder
Bioavailability of LC n-3 PUFAs in encapsulated powder is very similar to the bioavailability in ready-to-eat meals enriched with liquid fish oil, and encapsulated Powder can be considered useful to increase LC n -3 PUFA concentrations in blood.
Development of a Natural Product Rich in Bioavailable Omega-3 DHA from Locally Available Ingredients for Prevention of Nutrition Related Mental Illnesses
Findings indicate that ready-to-use natural food rich in preformed Omega-3 DHA and EPA can be developed from locally available ingredients.
A diet enriched with Mugil cephalus processed roes modulates the tissue lipid profile in healthy rats: a biochemical and chemometric assessment.
The overall data suggest that mullet bottarga may be considered as a natural bioavailable source of n-3 PUFA and qualify it as a traditional food product with functional properties and a potential functional ingredient for preparation ofn-3PUFA enriched foods.


Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications.
Total n-3 requirements may be higher for vegetarians than for nonvegetarians, as vegetarians must rely on conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA, although the response is generally less for ALA than for EPA andDHA.
Bioavailability of omega-3 essential fatty acids from perilla seed oil.
DHA status of vegetarians.
  • T. Sanders
  • Medicine
    Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids
  • 2009
UK Food Standards Agency alpha-linolenic acid workshop report.
There is a need to prove the efficacy of ALA supplementation on cardiovascular disease, before further investigating effects on cardiovascular risk factors, and the possibility of feeding livestock ALA-rich oils to provide a means of increasing the dietary intake in human consumers of EPA and DHA.
UK Food Standards Agency a -linolenic acid workshop report
A beneficial effect of ALA on the secondary prevention of CHD still needed to be established, and there was no reason to look further at existing CHD risk factors in relation to ALA supplementation, but the possibility of feeding livestock ALA-rich oils to provide a means of increasing the dietary intake in human consumers of EPA and DHA was highlighted.
N-3 Omega fatty acids: a review of current knowledge.
This review will attempt to outline the current position of n-3 omega fatty acids in the field of clinical nutrition and healthcare and outline the studies needed to determine whether there are significant advantages in taking them as food supplement without any adverse effects.
Understanding omega-3's.
Dietary echium oil increases plasma and neutrophil long-chain (n-3) fatty acids and lowers serum triacylglycerols in hypertriglyceridemic humans.
Dietary plant oils rich in stearidonic acid are metabolized to longer-chain, more unsaturated (n-3) PUFA, and these oils appear to possess hypotriglyceridemic properties typically associated with fish oils.
A practical approach to increasing intakes of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: use of novel foods enriched with n-3 fats
Objectives: To assess the effects of providing a wide range of foodstuffs containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), occurring naturally or from fortification, on intake and blood and tissue