Bioanalytical procedures for determination of drugs of abuse in blood

  title={Bioanalytical procedures for determination of drugs of abuse in blood},
  author={Thomas Kraemer and Liane D. Paul},
  journal={Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry},
  • T. KraemerL. D. Paul
  • Published 28 April 2007
  • Biology, Chemistry
  • Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Determination of drugs of abuse in blood is of great importance in clinical and forensic toxicology. This review describes procedures for detection of the following drugs of abuse and their metabolites in whole blood, plasma or serum: Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol glucuronide, heroin, 6-monoacetylmorphine, morphine, morphine-6-glucuronide, morphine-3-glucuronide, codeine… 

Economical Synthesis of 13C-Labeled Opiates, Cocaine Derivatives and Selected Urinary Metabolites by Derivatization of the Natural Products

The synthetic work has focused on identifying 13C atom-efficient routes towards these derivatives, and the 13C-labeled opiates and cocaine derivatives were made from the corresponding natural products.

Quantification of drugs of abuse in municipal wastewater via SPE and direct injection liquid chromatography mass spectrometry

A modified version of this method that incorporates solid-phase extraction to further enhance sensitivity is presented and is sufficiently sensitive to directly quantify 18 analytes in wastewater at concentrations less than 50 ng/L.

Determination of 19 drugs of abuse and metabolites in whole blood by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

The LC-MS/MS method provides a simple, specific, and sensitive solution for the quantification of some of the most frequent drugs of abuse and their metabolites in whole blood and was successfully applied to 412 forensic cases from October 2008 to mid February 2009.

Drug screening of whole blood by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method for screening of drugs in whole blood has been developed and validated and recoveries from whole blood were > 50% except for morphine and THC.

Paper spray and extraction spray mass spectrometry for the direct and simultaneous quantification of eight drugs of abuse in whole blood.

Determination of eight drugs of abuse in blood has been performed using paper spray or extraction spray mass spectrometry in under 2 min with minimal sample preparation and exhibit the potential for performing rapid and high-throughput assays for selective on-site multicompound quantitative screening of illicit drugs.

A one-step extraction procedure for the screening of cocaine, amphetamines and cannabinoids in postmortem blood samples.

The developed gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method proved capable of quantifying all three classes of drugs of abuse proposed in this study, through a one-step extraction procedure.



Concentration profiles of cocaine, pyrolytic methyl ecgonidine and thirteen metabolites in human blood and urine: determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Ecgonine, the major metabolite of methyl ecgonidine, was present in 77% of PM and 88% of the LV specimens, indicating smoking as the major route of cocaine administration, indicating detection of ecgonine is advantageous when benzoylecgonine concentrations are below 100 ng/mL.

Advances in analytical toxicology: the current role of liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry in drug quantification in blood and oral fluid

  • H. Maurer
  • Chemistry
    Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry
  • 2005
Procedures for quantification of drugs in the biosamples blood, plasma, serum, or oral fluid using liquid chromatography coupled with single-stage or tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS, LC–MS–MS) are reviewed.

Enantioselective quantitation of the ecstasy compound (R)- and (S)-N-ethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine and its major metabolites in human plasma and urine.

  • J. BuechlerM. Schwab K. Kovar
  • Chemistry
    Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences
  • 2003

Toxicokinetics of Amphetamines: Metabolism and Toxicokinetic Data of Designer Drugs, Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, and Their N-Alkyl Derivatives

English-language publications from 1995 to 2000 were reviewed and papers describing identification of metabolites or cytochrome P450 isoenzyme-dependent metabolism and papers containing pharmacokinetic/toxicokinetic data were considered and summarized.

Screening for and validated quantification of amphetamines and of amphetamine- and piperazine-derived designer drugs in human blood plasma by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

A method for screening for and simultaneous quantification of the above-mentioned compounds and the metabolites p-hydroxyamphetamine and p-Hydroxymethamphetamine (pholedrine) in human blood plasma is described.

Drugs of Abuse Monitoring in Blood for Control of Driving Under the Influence of Drugs

This review describes procedures for detection of the following drugs of abuse in whole blood, plasma, and serum as well as gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), phencyclidine (PCP), and psilocybin/psilocin.

Stereochemical analysis of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and its main metabolites in human samples including the catechol-type metabolite (3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine).

The short elimination half-life of (S)-MDMA is consistent with the subjective effects and psychomotor performance reported in subjects exposed to MDMA, whereas the much longer half- life of the (R)-enantiomer correlates with mood and cognitive effects experienced on the next days after MDMA use.

Stereochemical analysis of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and its main metabolites by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

A detailed study of the chemical reactions involved in the derivatization steps was indispensable to develop a straightforward, sensitive, and reproducible method for the analysis of the parent drug compound and its metabolites.