Bioactivity of autologous irradiated renal cell carcinoma vaccines generated by ex vivo granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene transfer.

@article{Simons1997BioactivityOA,
  title={Bioactivity of autologous irradiated renal cell carcinoma vaccines generated by ex vivo granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene transfer.},
  author={Jonathon W. Simons and Elizabeth M. Jaffee and Christine E. Weber and Hyam I. Levitsky and William Andrew Nelson and Michael Anthony Carducci and Audrey J. Lazenby and Lawrence K. Cohen and C C Finn and Shirley M. Clift and K M Hauda and Lisa A. Beck and Kristin M. Leiferman and A. H. Owens and Steven Piantadosi and Glenn Dranoff and Richard C. Mulligan and Drew Mark Pardoll and Fray F. Marshall},
  journal={Cancer research},
  year={1997},
  volume={57 8},
  pages={1537-46}
}
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene-transduced, irradiated tumor vaccines induce potent, T-cell-mediated antitumor immune responses in preclinical models. We report the initial results of a Phase I trial evaluating this strategy for safety and the induction of immune responses in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Patients were treated in a randomized, double-blind dose-escalation study with equivalent doses of autologous, irradiated RCC vaccine… CONTINUE READING
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