Four new compounds (1-4) were isolated along with 16 known compounds from whole plants of Peperomia duclouxii. The new structures were elucidated as 4-hydroxy-2-[(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)nonanoyl]cyclohexane-1,3-dione (1), 4-hydroxy-2-[(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)undecanoyl]cyclohexane-1,3-dione (2), 4-hydroxy-2-[(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)tridecanoyl]cyclohexane-1,3-dione (3), and 2-[(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)dodecyl]-4-hydroxy-2,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-2H-1-benzopyran-5-one (4), by analysis of their spectroscopic data. The known polyketides, surinone A and oleiferinone, showed cell growth inhibitory activity against the WI-38, VA-13, and HepG2 cell lines with IC50 values that ranged from 4.4 to 9.6 microg/mL. The known sesquiterpenoid, sinugibberodiol, showed a more potent effect on calcein accumulation than verapamil at 2.5 and 25 microg/mL. Compounds 3 and 4, surinone A, and oleiferinone showed moderate to weak inhibitory activity on the induction of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the presence of IL-1alpha or TNF-alpha.