Bioaccessibility and Risk of Exposure to Metals and SVOCs in Artificial Turf Field Fill Materials and Fibers

@article{Pavilonis2014BioaccessibilityAR,
  title={Bioaccessibility and Risk of Exposure to Metals and SVOCs in Artificial Turf Field Fill Materials and Fibers},
  author={Brian Pavilonis and Clifford P. Weisel and Brian T Buckley and Paul J. Lioy},
  journal={Risk Analysis},
  year={2014},
  volume={34}
}
To reduce maintenance costs, municipalities and schools are starting to replace natural grass fields with a new generation synthetic turf. Unlike Astro‐Turf, which was first introduced in the 1960s, synthetic field turf provides more cushioning to athletes. Part of this cushioning comes from materials like crumb rubber infill, which is manufactured from recycled tires and may contain a variety of chemicals. The goal of this study was to evaluate potential exposures from playing on artificial… 
Evaluation of Organic and Inorganic Compounds Extractable by Multiple Methods from Commercially Available Crumb Rubber Mulch
Recycled tires are often shredded for use in a variety of consumer-related products. The rubber so used may contain a number of compounds known to be deleterious to human and environmental health. We
Hazardous chemicals in outdoor and indoor surfaces: artificial turf and laminate flooring
TLDR
The results of this preliminary study show that flooring surfaces may be a source of children’s exposure to toxic chemicals and domestic regulations should be implemented to reduce the risk to children from exposure to these surfaces.
Artificial Turf Infill: A Comparative Assessment of Chemical Contents
TLDR
A hazard-based analysis was conducted, comparing tire crumb with other materials marketed as alternative infills, including other synthetic polymers as well as plant- and mineral-based materials, finding several are likely to be somewhat safer than tire crumbs.
Synthetic Turf Fields, Crumb Rubber, and Alleged Cancer Risk
TLDR
Three basic premises regarding the nature of the reported cancers, the latency of exposure to environmental causes of cancer to the development of clinically detectable cancer, and the rarity of environmental causation of cancer in children, adolescents, and young adults suggest otherwise suggest otherwise.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 38 REFERENCES
Hazardous chemicals in synthetic turf materials and their bioaccessibility in digestive fluids
Many synthetic turf fields consist of not only artificial grass but also rubber granules that are used as infill. The public concerns about toxic chemicals possibly contained in either artificial
Human Health Risk Assessment of Synthetic Turf Fields Based Upon Investigation of Five Fields in Connecticut
TLDR
Outdoor and indoor synthetic turf fields are not associated with elevated adverse health risks, however, it would be prudent for building operators to provide adequate ventilation to prevent a buildup of rubber-related volatile organic chemicals (VOC) and SVOC at indoor fields.
Evaluating and Regulating Lead in Synthetic Turf
TLDR
Synthetic turf can deteriorate to form dust containing lead at levels that may pose a risk to children, and it is imperative that a consistent, nationwide approach for sampling, assessment, and action be developed.
Synthetic Turf Field Investigation in Connecticut
TLDR
Results showed that personal concentrations were higher than stationary concentrations and were higher on turf than in background samples for certain VOC, and in some cases, personal VOC concentrations from natural grass fields were as high as those on turf.
Benzothiazole Toxicity Assessment in Support of Synthetic Turf Field Human Health Risk Assessment
TLDR
This assessment provides toxicity information for a human health risk assessment involving Benzothiazole (BZT) detected at five fields in Connecticut, and enables BZT to be quantitatively assessed in risk assessments involving synthetic turf fields.
Toxicological Assessment of Coated versus Uncoated Rubber Granulates Obtained from Used Tires for Use in Sport Facilities
TLDR
It was concluded that between the two types of coatings tested, one is particularly effective in reducing emissions to the environment, simultaneously meeting the requirements of adherence and color stability.
Artificial-turf playing fields: contents of metals, PAHs, PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs, inhalation exposure to PAHs and related preliminary risk assessment.
...
...