Binding of oligoguanylate to scavenger receptors is required for oligonucleotides to augment NK cell activity and induce IFN.

@article{Kimura1994BindingOO,
  title={Binding of oligoguanylate to scavenger receptors is required for oligonucleotides to augment NK cell activity and induce IFN.},
  author={Y Kimura and Kazuhiko Sonehara and Etsuro Kuramoto and Tadashi Makino and S. Yamamoto and T. Yamamoto and Tetsuro Kataoka and Tohru Tokunaga},
  journal={Journal of biochemistry},
  year={1994},
  volume={116 5},
  pages={
          991-4
        }
}
Specific palindromic sequences in synthetic oligonucleotides are required to induce IFN and augment IFN-mediated natural killer activity. To study the mechanism of IFN induction by oligonucleotides containing palindromic sequences, we investigated the possible target molecules of the oligonucleotides. Oligo-1, a 30mer single-stranded oligonucleotide with oligoG sequences next to the active palindromic sequence (AACGTT), had more activity than oligonucleotides with oligoA, oligoC, or oligoT… 
The Role of Cell Surface Receptors in the Activation of Human B Cells by Phosphorothioate Oligonucleotides1
TLDR
Human B cells bind sODNs by a receptor-mediated mechanism that is necessary but not sufficient for polyclonal activation of human B cells, indicating that the role of cell surface receptors was investigated.
The influence of DNA sequence on the immunostimulatory properties of plasmid DNA vectors.
TLDR
The results suggest that the addition of 20 to 60-base dG sequences to plasmids does not significantly affect their properties as immunostimulators or vaccines and suggest that MSR ligands can block cytokine induction by plasmid DNA whether or not theplasmid contains extended runs of dG.
Oligonucleotides Tethered to a Short Polyguanylic Acid Stretch Are Targeted to Macrophages: Enhanced Antiviral Activity of a Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Specific Antisense Oligonucleotide
TLDR
Results suggest that macrophage-directed designer ANS against infective agents may simply be obtained by adding a short stretch of guanylic acid sequence to the desired specific ANS during solid-phase synthesis.
Oligodeoxynucleotides containing palindrome sequences with internal 5'-CpG-3' act directly on human NK and activated T cells to induce IFN-gamma production in vitro.
TLDR
The results indicate that oligo-DNAs containing CG palindrome act directly on human NK cells and activated T cells to induce IFN-gamma production.
Hexamer palindromic oligonucleotides with 5'-CG-3' motif(s) induce production of interferon.
TLDR
The results strongly suggest that the minimal essential structure required for IFN induction is the hexamer palindromic sequence with CG motif(s), and that oligonucleotides with NACGTN and NTCGAN sequences exhibited the strongest activity.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 19 REFERENCES
Unique palindromic sequences in synthetic oligonucleotides are required to induce IFN [correction of INF] and augment IFN-mediated [correction of INF] natural killer activity.
TLDR
The results strongly suggest that the presence of the unique palindromic sequences, such as GACGTC, AGCGCT, and AACGTT, but not ACCGGT, is essential for the immunostimulatory activity of oligonucleotides.
Oligonucleotide Sequences Required for Natural Killer Cell Activation
TLDR
The results indicated that the activity depended critically on the presence of particular palindromic sequences including the 5 ‐CG‐3 motif(s), and the size and the number of Palindromes showed the strongest activity among the oligonucleotides tested.
Synthetic Oligonucleotides with Particular Base Sequences from the cDNA Encoding Proteins of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Induce Interferons and Activate Natural Killer Cells
TLDR
It is suggested that certain palindrome sequences, like GACGTC, GGCGCC and TGCGCA, are essential for 30‐mer oligonucleotides, like BCG‐A4a, to induce IFNs.
In vivo augmentation of natural killer cell activity with a deoxyribonucleic acid fraction of BCG.
TLDR
Antitumor activities of MY-1 were also abolished if the animals were pretreated with anti-asialo GM1 antiserum or carrageenan, suggesting that the activities can be ascribed mainly to activated NK cells.
Recognition and plasma clearance of endotoxin by scavenger receptors
TLDR
In vivo studies show that scavenger-receptor ligands greatly inhibit hepatic uptake of lipid IVA in mice, and scavenger receptors expressed on macrophages may have an important role in the clearance and detoxification of endotoxin in animals.
Antitumor Activity of Synthetic Oligonucleotides with Sequences from cDNA Encoding Proteins of Mycobacterium bovis BCG
TLDR
Results suggested that palindromic structure is essential for the antitumor activity of the synthetic oligonucleotides.
In vitro Augmentation of Natural Killer Cell Activity and Production of Interferon‐α/β and ‐γ with Deoxyribonucleic Acid Fraction from Mycobacterium bovis BCG
A nucleic acid‐rich fraction extracted and purified from BCG (MY‐1) augmented natural killer (NK) cell activity of mouse spleen cells in vitro, and produced factor(s) which showed anti‐viral activity
Antitumor activity of deoxyribonucleic acid fraction from Mycobacterium bovis BCG. I. Isolation, physicochemical characterization, and antitumor activity.
TLDR
A fraction extracted from Mycobacterium bovis strain BCG, which was composed of 70% DNA, 28.0% RNA, 1.3% protein, 0.20% glucose, and 0.1% lipid, was found to possess strong antitumor activity, suggesting that the DNA from BCG possessed strong antitUMor activity under certain conditions.
The scavenger cell pathway for lipoprotein degradation: specificity of the binding site that mediates the uptake of negatively-charged LDL by macrophages.
TLDR
It is possible that the site that binds negatively-charged LDL may be responsible for the massive accumulation of cholesteryl esters that occurs in vivo in macrophages and other scavenger cells in patients with high levels of circulating plasma LDL.
In vitro augmentation of natural killer activity of peripheral blood cells from cancer patients by a DNA fraction from Mycobacterium bovis BCG.
TLDR
The NK activity in all of seven patients with gastric cancer, 12 patients with colonic cancer, and six patients with uterine cancer was augmented by incubation with Mycobacterium bovis BCG, although the degree of augmentation varied depending upon the origin of PBL.
...
...