Bordetella Pertussis Toxin does not induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human whole blood
In order to examine the ability of Limulus antilipopolysaccharide factor (LALF) to bind lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we purified LALF to homogeneity from Limulus amoebocyte lysate and coupled it covalently to agarose beads. LALF-coupled beads captured more tritiated LPS from rough and smooth strains of gram-negative bacteria than did control human serum albumin-coupled beads. Unlabeled homologous and heterologous LPS competed for the binding of 3H-LPS to LALF-coupled beads. LALF bound LPS in a dose-dependent manner as assessed by the precipitation of LPS-LALF complexes with 50% saturated ammonium sulfate. We also studied the ability of LALF to neutralize LPS. LPS preincubated with LALF was less mitogenic for murine splenocytes, was less pyrogenic in the rabbit fever assay, was less lethal in mice which had been sensitized to LPS with actinomycin D, and induced less fever, neutropenia, and pulmonary hypertension when infused into sheep. Our findings extend prior studies which suggested that LALF binds to and neutralizes LPS from multiple strains of gram-negative bacteria.