Binary Black Hole Population Properties Inferred from the First and Second Observing Runs of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo

@article{Collaboration2019BinaryBH,
  title={Binary Black Hole Population Properties Inferred from the First and Second Observing Runs of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo},
  author={The Ligo Scientific Collaboration and T. M. C. Abbott and Richard J. Abbott and Thomas Abbott and Sheelu Abraham and Fausto Acernese and Kendall Ackley and Carl Adams and Rana X. Adhikari and V B Adya and Christoph Affeldt and Michalis Agathos and Kazuhiro Agatsuma and Nancy Aggarwal and Odylio D. Aguiar and Lloyd Paul Aiello and Anirban Ain and Parameswaran Ajith and Graham Scott Allen and Annalisa Allocca and Miguel A. Aloy and Paul A Altin and A. Amato and Alena Ananyeva and Stuart B. Anderson and Warren G. Anderson and S. V. Angelova and Sarah Antier and Stephen Appert and Koji Arai and M. C. Araya and Joseph S. Areeda and M Ar{\`e}ne and Nicolas Arnaud and K. G. Arun and Stefano Ascenzi and Gregory Ashton and Stuart M. Aston and Pia Astone and F Aubin and Peter Aufmuth and K. AultONeal and Christopher C. Austin and V. Avendano and Adriana {\'A}vila-{\'A}lvarez and Stanislav Babak and Philippe Bacon and Francesca Badaracco and M. K. M. Bader and S Bae and Paul T. Baker and F. Baldaccini and Giulio Ballardin and Stefan W. Ballmer and Sharan Banagiri and J. C. B. Barayoga and S. E. Barclay and Barry C. Barish and Daniel H. N. Barker and Kevin Barkett and Samuel Barnum and Fabrizio Barone and B. W. Barr and Lisa Barsotti and Matteo Barsuglia and D{\'a}niel Barta and Jms Bartlett and Imre Bartos and Riccardo Bassiri and Andrea Basti and Mateusz Bawaj and Joseph Bayley and Marco Bazzan and Bence B'ecsy and Michał Bejger and I. Belahcene and A. S. Bell and Deeksha Beniwal and B. K. Berger and Gerald Bergmann and Sebastiano Bernuzzi and John J Bero and Christopher P. L. Berry and Diego Bersanetti and Alessandro Bertolini and J Betzwieser and R. Bhandare and J. Bidler and I. A. Bilenko and Serdar Bilgili and G Billingsley and Jeremy Birch and R Birney and Ofek Birnholtz and Sebastien Biscans and Sylvia Biscoveanu and A. Bisht and Massimiliano Bitossi and M. A. Bizouard and J. K. Blackburn and Carl Blair and David G Blair and R. M. Blair and Steven Bloemen and Nina Bode and Michel Boer and Yannick Boetzel and Gilles Bogaert and F. Bondu and Edgard Bonilla and Romain Bonnand and Phillip Booker and Boris A. Boom and Callum Dale Booth and R. G. Bork and Valerio Boschi and Suvadeep Bose and K. Bossie and V Bossilkov and Joel Bosveld and Yann Bouffanais and Aaron T. Bozzi and C. Bradaschia and Patrick R. Brady and Alyssa Bramley and Marica Branchesi and James E. Brau and Tristan Briant and Joseph Briggs and Francesco Brighenti and A. Brillet and Martin Brinkmann and V. Brisson and Patrick Brockill and A. F. Brooks and D D Brown and Sharon Brunett and Aaron Buikema and Tomasz Bulik and H. J. Bulten and Alessandra Buonanno and Riccardo Buscicchio and D. Buskulic and Christelle Buy and Robert L. Byer and Miriam Cabero and Laura Cadonati and Gianpietro Cagnoli and C. Cahillane and Juan Calder{\'o}n Bustillo and Thomas A. Callister and Enrico Calloni and Jordan B. Camp and W. A. Campbell and Maurizio Canepa and Kipp C. Cannon and H. Cao and J. Cao and E. Capocasa and Franco Carbognani and Santiago Caride and Matthew Carney and Gregorio Carullo and J. Casanueva Diaz and Claudio Casentini and Sarah Caudill and Marco Cavagli{\`a} and F. Cavalier and R. Cavalieri and Giancarlo Cella and Pablo Cerd'a-Dur'an and G. Cerretani and Elisa Cesarini and O. Chaibi and Kabir Chakravarti and Sydney JoAnne Chamberlin and Man Leong Chan and S. Chao and P R Charlton and Eve A. Chase and {\'E}ric Chassande-Mottin and Debarati Chatterjee and M. Chaturvedi and Katerina Chatziioannou and Belinda D. Cheeseboro and H. Y. Chen and X. Chen and Y. R. Chen and H.-P. Cheng and C. K. Cheong and Hanyu Chia and Andrea Chincarini and Antonino Chiummo and G. Cho and H. S. Cho and M. Cho and Nelson Christensen and Qi Chu and Sheon S Y Chua and K. W. Chung and S. Chung and Giacomo Ciani and Alexei A. Ciobanu and Riccardo Ciolfi and Frank Cipriano and A Cirone and Filiberto Clara and J A Clark and Patrick Clearwater and F. Cleva and Candida Gori Cocchieri and Eliana Marina Coccia and P.-F. Cohadon and David Cohen and Robert E. Colgan and Marta Colleoni and Christophe Collette and C. Collins and Lynn R. Cominsky and Marcio Constancio and L Conti and S J Cooper and P. Corban and Thomas R. Corbitt and Isabel Cordero-Carri'on and K. Rainer Corley and Neil J. Cornish and Alessandra Corsi and Samuele Cortese and C. A. Costa and Roberto Cotesta and Michael W. Coughlin and S Coughlin and J.-P. Coulon and Stefanie Countryman and Peter Couvares and P. B. Covas and Edith Cowan and D. M. Coward and M. J. Cowart and D. C. Coyne and Robert Coyne and Jolien D. E. Creighton and T. D. Creighton and Jonathan Cripe and M. Croquette and S. Gwynne Crowder and Torrey Cullen and Andrew Cumming and L. Cunningham and Elena Cuoco and Tito Dal Canton and Gergely D'alya and S L Danilishin and Sabrina D’Antonio and Karsten Danzmann and Anirban Dasgupta and Carlos F. Da Silva Costa and Laurence Elise Helene Datrier and Vincenzino Dattilo and Itishri Dave and M. Davier and Derek Davis and E J Daw and Daniel B. DeBra and M S Deenadayalan and J{\'e}r{\^o}me Degallaix and Martina de Laurentis and Samuel Del'eglise and Walter del Pozzo and Lindsay DeMarchi and Nicholas Demos and Thomas Dent and Roberto De Pietri and J. Derby and Rosario De Rosa and Camilla de Rossi and Riccardo DeSalvo and Omar de Varona and Sanjeev V. Dhurandhar and M. C. D'iaz and Tim Dietrich and L. Di Fiore and Matteo di Giovanni and Tristano Di Girolamo and Alberto Di Lieto and B. Ding and Sibilla Di Pace and I. Di Palma and Francesco Di Renzo and Alexander Dmitriev and Zoheyr Doctor and Frederick J. Donovan and K L Dooley and Suresh Doravari and Iain Dorrington and Turlough P. Downes and M. Drago and J C Driggers and Zhihui Du and J. G. Ducoin and Peter Dupej and Sheila E. Dwyer and Paul J. Easter and Tega Boro Edo and Matthew C. Edwards and Anamaria Effler and Phil Ehrens and Jan Eichholz and Stephen S. Eikenberry and Markus Eisenmann and Robert A. Eisenstein and Reed Essick and H{\'e}ctor Estell{\'e}s and D Estevez and Zachariah B. Etienne and Taylor M. Etzel and Matthew Evans and Thomas M. Evans and V Fafone and H. Fair and Stephen Fairhurst and X. Fan and Stefania Farinon and Benjamin Farr and Will M. Farr and E Fauchon-Jones and Marc Favata and Maxime Fays and Mariana A. Fazio and Christopher Fee and Jon R. Feicht and Martin M. Fejer and F. Feng and {\'A}lvaro Fern{\'a}ndez-Galiana and I. Ferrante and E.C. Ferreira and T. A. Ferreira and Federico Ferrini and Francesco Fidecaro and Irene Fiori and Donatella Fiorucci and Maya Fishbach and Rebecca Fisher and Jason Fishner and M. Fitz-Axen and R. Flaminio and Mark Fletcher and Eric B. Flynn and Heather Fong and Jos{\'e} A. Font and P W F Forsyth and J.-D. Fournier and Sergio Frasca and F. Frasconi and Zsolt Frei and Andreas Freise and Raymond E. Frey and Volker Frey and P. Fritschel and Valery Victor Frolov and P. J. Fulda and Matthew Fyffe and Hunter Gabbard and Bhooshan Gadre and Sebastian M. Gaebel and Jonathan R. Gair and Luca Gammaitoni and Miftar Ganija and Sampada Gaonkar and A. Garc{\'i}a and Cecilio Garc'ia-Quir'os and F. Garufi and Bubba Gateley and Sergio Del Gaudio and G. Gaur and V. Gayathri and Gianluca Gemme and Emmanuelle G{\'e}nin and A. Gennai and Daniel George and Jimin George and L'aszl'o 'A. Gergely and Vincent Germain and Sudarshan Ghonge and Abhirup Ghosh and Archisman Ghosh and S. Ghosh and Bruno Giacomazzo and J. A. Giaime and Krystal Giardina and A. Giazotto and Karl Gill and Gerardo Giordano and Lamar Glover and Patrick Godwin and Evan Goetz and Ryan P. Goetz and Boris Goncharov and Gabriela Gonz'alez and J. M. Gonzalez Castro and A. Gopakumar and Michael L. Gorodetsky and Sarah E. Gossan and Matthieu Gosselin and R. Gouaty and Aniello Grado and Christian Graef and Massimo Granata and A. Grant and Slawomir Gras and Philippe Grassia and C. Gray and Richard Carl Gray and Giuseppe Greco and Andrew Green and R Green and Elizabeth M. Gretarsson and Paul J. Groot and Hartmut Grote and S. Grunewald and P. Gruning and G. Guidi and Hitesh Kumar Gulati and Y. Guo and A. Gupta and M. Gupta and Eric K. Gustafson and Richard Gustafson and Le{\"i}la Haegel and O Halim and Bernard Hall and Evan D. Hall and E. Z. Hamilton and Giles D. Hammond and Maria Haney and M. M. Hanke and Jonathan Hanks and Chad Hanna and Mark Hannam and Otto A. Hannuksela and James E. Hanson and T Hardwick and K. Haris and Jan Harms and Gregory M. Harry and I. W. Harry and Carl-Johan Haster and K. Haughian and Fergus Hayes and James Healy and Antoine Heidmann and Matthew Heintze and H. Heitmann and P. Hello and Gary Hemming and Martin Hendry and Ik Siong Heng and J{\"o}rg Hennig and Alastair Heptonstall and Francisco Vivanco and Mich{\`e}le Heurs and Stefan Hild and Tanja Hinderer and David C. 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Kuo and Adam Kutynia and S. Kwang and Benjamin D. Lackey and K. H. Lai and Tsz Lung Lam and Michael Landry and Benjamin Lane and Ryan N. Lang and J. S. Lange and Brian Lantz and Robert K. Lanza and A. Lartaux-Vollard and Paul D. Lasky and Michael Laxen and Albert Lazzarini and C Lazzaro and Paola Leaci and Sean Leavey and Y Lecoeuche and C. H. Lee and H. K. Lee and H. m. Lee and H. W. Lee and J. J. Lee and K. H. Lee and J. Lehmann and Amber Lenon and Nicolas Leroy and Nicolas Letendre and Yuri Levin and J. Li and K. J. L. Li and T. G. F. Li and X. Li and F-L. Lin and Frank Linde and S. D. Linker and Tyson B. Littenberg and J Liu and X. K. Liu and Rico K. L. Lo and N. A. Lockerbie and L London and Alessandro Longo and Marco Lorenzini and Vincent Loriette and Marc Lormand and Giovanni Losurdo and James Lough and Carlos O. Lousto and Geoffrey Lovelace and Marcus E. Lower and Harald Luck and Diana Lumaca and Andrew Lundgren and Ryan S. Lynch and Y. Ma and Ronaldas Macas and S. Macfoy and Myron Macinnis and D Macleod and A. Macquet and Fabian Maga{\~n}a-Sandoval and Lorena Maga{\~n}a Zertuche and Ryan Magee and E. Majorana and I. Maksimovic and A. Malik and Na Man and Vuk Mandic and Vanessa Mangano and Georgia L. Mansell and Magnus Manske and Maddalena Mantovani and Michela Mapelli and Fabio Marchesoni and F. Marion and Szabolcs M'arka and Zsuzsa M'arka and Charalampos Markakis and Ashot Markosyan and Alex G. Markowitz and Edward Maros and Antonio Marquina and Sylvain Marsat and F. Martelli and Iain W. Martin and R. M. Martin and Denis Martynov and K. O. Mason and E. Massera and A. Masserot and Thomas Massinger and M. Masso-Reid and Simone Mastrogiovanni and Andrew Matas and F. Matichard and Luca Matone and Nergis Mavalvala and N. Mazumder and John J. McCann and R. McCarthy and D. E. McClelland and Scott McCormick and Lee McCuller and Scott C. McGuire and Jess McIver and David J. McManus and T G McRae and Sean T. McWilliams and Duncan Meacher and Grant David Meadors and Moritz Mehmet and Ajit Kumar Mehta and Jeroen Meidam and Andrew Melatos and Greg Mendell and R. A. Mercer and Lorenzo Mereni and E. L. Merilh and Mourad Merzougui and Sydney Meshkov and Chris Messenger and Cody Messick and R{\'e}mi Metzdorff and Patrick M. Meyers and Haixing Miao and Christophe Michel and Hannah Middleton and Eugeniy Mikhailov and Leonardo J. Milano and A. L. Miller and A. Miller and Margaret Millhouse and J. C. Mills and M. C. Milovich-Goff and Olivier Minazzoli and Yury Minenkov and Alec S Mishkin and Chandra Kant Mishra and Timesh Mistry and Subhasish Mitra and Vp. Mitrofanov and Gena Mitselmakher and Richard K Mittleman and Geoffrey Mo and Donald A Moffa and Kentaro Mogushi and Satyanarayan Ray Pitambar Mohapatra and M. Montani and Christopher J. Moore and Daniel Moraru and Gerardo Moreno and Soichiro Morisaki and B. 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Robertson and Raymond Robie and Florent Robinet and Alessandro Rocchi and Lo{\"i}c Rolland and Jameson Graef Rollins and Vincent Roma and Marco Romanelli and Rocco Romano and Chandra Romel and J. H. Romie and Kyle Rose and D. Rosi'nska and Shawn Rosofsky and Michael P Ross and Sheila Rowan and A. Rudiger and P. Ruggi and G. Rutins and Kris Ryan and Surabhi Sachdev and Travis Sadecki and Mairi Sakellariadou and Livio Salconi and M. Saleem and Anuradha Samajdar and Letizia Sammut and E. J. Sanchez and L. E. Sanchez and Nicolas Sanchis-Gual and V. D. Sandberg and Joyce Sanders and K. A. Santiago and Nikhil Sarin and Beno{\^i}t Sassolas and Bangalore Sathyaprakash and Peter Saulson and O. E. S. Sauter and Richard L. Savage and Paul Schale and Mark A. Scheel and Jacob Scheuer and Patricia Schmidt and Roman Schnabel and Robert M. S. Schofield and A. Schonbeck and Emil Schreiber and Brian Wm. Schulte and Bernard F. Schutz and Sophia Schwalbe and J. Scott and Susan M. Scott and Edward Seidel and Danny Sellers and Anand S. Sengupta and Noah Sennett and Daniel Sentenac and Valeria Sequino and A. M. Sergeev and Yoshinta Setyawati and Daniel A. Shaddock and Thomas Shaffer and M. Selim Shahriar and Morgan Shaner and Lijing Shao and P. Sharma and Peter Shawhan and H. Shen and R. Shink and Deirdre Shoemaker and Deirdre M. Shoemaker and S. Shyamsundar and Karelle Siellez and Magdalena Sieniawska and Daniel Sigg and A. da Silva and Leo P. Singer and N. Singh and Akshat Singhal and Alicia M. Sintes and Satzhan Sitmukhambetov and Vasileios Skliris and B J J Slagmolen and Teresa Slaven-Blair and J. R. Smith and R Smith and Surendra Nadh Somala and E J Son and Borja Sorazu and Fiodor Sorrentino and Tarun Souradeep and Eric Sowell and A P Spencer and Mario Spera and A. K. Srivastava and Varun Srivastava and Kai Staats and Cosmin Stachie and Mark Standke and Dani{\`e}le Steer and Michael Steinke and Jessica Steinlechner and S. Steinlechner and Daniel Steinmeyer and Simon Stevenson and Dane Stocks and Robert Stone and D. J. Stops and Kenneth Strain and Giulia Stratta and Sergey Strigin and Amber Strunk and Riccardo Sturani and Al. Stuver and Vivishek Sudhir and Tiffany Summerscales and L. Sun and Sooraj Sunil and Joshua Suresh and P. Sutton and Bas Swinkels and Marek J. Szczepa'nczyk and Matteo Tacca and Simon C. Tait and Colm Talbot and Dipongkar Talukder and David B. Tanner and M'arton T'apai and Andrea Taracchini and Jay D. Tasson and R. D. Taylor and Fabian Thies and M. Thomas and Pieter Thomas and S. R. Thondapu and Keith A. Thorne and Eric Thrane and Shubhanshu Tiwari and Srishti Tiwari and Vaibhav Tiwari and Karl Toland and Mauro Tonelli and Zeno Tornasi and Alejandro Torres-Forn'e and C. I. Torrie and Daniel Toyra and Flavio Travasso and Gary Traylor and Maria Concetta Tringali and Agata Trovato and Lucia Trozzo and R. J. Trudeau and Ka Wa Tsang and M. Tse and Robert Tso and Leo Tsukada and Daichi Tsuna and Darkhan Tuyenbayev and Koh Ueno and Dennis Wayne Ugolini and C. S. Unnikrishnan and Alexander L. Urban and S. A. Usman and Henning Vahlbruch and Gabriele Vajente and Guillermo Valdes and Niels Anton van Bakel and Martinus van Beuzekom and J. F. J. van den Brand and Chris van den Broeck and Daniel Vander-Hyde and Laura van der Schaaf and Joris van Heijningen and A. A. van Veggel and M Vardaro and Vijay Varma and Steve Vass and M'aty'as Vas'uth and Alberto Vecchio and Gabriele Vedovato and John Veitch and Peter J. Veitch and Krishna Venkateswara and Gautam Venugopalan and D. Verkindt and F. Vetrano and Andrea Vicer'e and A D Viets and David Vine and J.-Y. Vinet and Salvatore Vitale and Thomas Vo and Helios Vocca and Cheryl Vorvick and Sergey P. Vyatchanin and Andrew R. Wade and Leslie E. Wade and Madeline Wade and R. C. Walet and Marissa Walker and L. Wallace and Sin'ead Walsh and G. Wang and H. Wang and J. Z. Wang and W. H. Wang and Y. Wang and Robert L. Ward and Z. A. Warden and Jimmy Warner and Michal Was and Jennifer Watchi and Betsy Weaver and L.-W. Wei and Michael Weinert and Alan J. Weinstein and Rainer Weiss and Felix Wellmann and Longping Wen and Erik Wessel and Peter Wessels and Jonathan Westhouse and Karl Wette and James Whelan and Bernard F Whiting and Chris Whittle and Dennis Wilken and D. Williams and Andrew R. Williamson and Josh Willis and Benno Willke and M. H. Wimmer and Walter Winkler and Christopher C. Wipf and Holger Wittel and Graham Woan and J. Woehler and J. K. Wofford and John R. Worden and J. Lenore Wright and D. S. Wu and Daniel Wysocki and L Xiao and H. Yamamoto and Cregg C. Yancey and L. Yang and Ming Yap and Maher Yazback and D. W. Yeeles and Hang Yu and Haocun Yu and S. H. R. Yuen and M. Yvert and A. K. Zadro.zny and Michele Zanolin and T. I. Zelenova and Jean Pierre Zendri and Michael Zevin and J. Zhang and L. Zhang and T. X. Zhang and C Zhao and M. Zhou and Z. Zhou and X J Zhu and Aaron Zimmerman and Yosef Zlochower and Michael Edward Zucker and J. G. Zweizig},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal Letters},
  year={2019},
  volume={882}
}
We present results on the mass, spin, and redshift distributions with phenomenological population models using the 10 binary black hole (BBH) mergers detected in the first and second observing runs completed by Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. We constrain properties of the BBH mass spectrum using models with a range of parameterizations of the BBH mass and spin distributions. We find that the mass distribution of the more massive BH in such binaries is well approximated by models with no more… 
When Are LIGO/Virgo’s Big Black Hole Mergers?
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Exploring Features in the Binary Black Hole Population
  • V. Tiwari
  • Physics
    The Astrophysical Journal
  • 2022
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Over the course of the third observing run of the LIGO–Virgo–KAGRA Collaboration, several gravitational-wave (GW) neutron star–black hole (NSBH) candidates have been announced. By assuming that these
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TLDR
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Constraining the Fraction of Binary Black Holes Formed in Isolation and Young Star Clusters with Gravitational-wave Data
Ten binary black hole mergers have already been detected during the first two observing runs of advanced LIGO and Virgo, and many more are expected to be observed in the near future. This opens the
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Simultaneous measurements of distance and redshift can be used to constrain the expansion history of the universe and associated cosmological parameters. Merging binary black hole (BBH) systems are
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Binary black holes (BBHs) detected by gravitational wave (GW) observations could be broadly divided into two formation channels: those formed through field binary evolution and those assembled
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We explore the predictions for detectable gravitational-wave signals from merging binary black holes formed through chemically homogeneous evolution in massive short-period stellar binaries. We find
MERGING BLACK HOLE BINARIES IN GALACTIC NUCLEI: IMPLICATIONS FOR ADVANCED-LIGO DETECTIONS
Motivated by the recent detection of gravitational waves from the black hole binary merger GW150914, we study the dynamical evolution of (stellar-mass) black holes in galactic nuclei, where massive
NEUTRON STARS VERSUS BLACK HOLES: PROBING THE MASS GAP WITH LIGO/VIRGO
Inspirals and mergers of black hole (BH) and/or neutron star (NS) binaries are expected to be abundant sources for ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. We assess the capabilities of
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