Bilingualism delays age at onset of dementia, independent of education and immigration status

@article{Alladi2013BilingualismDA,
  title={Bilingualism delays age at onset of dementia, independent of education and immigration status},
  author={Suvarna Alladi and Thomas H Bak and Vasanta Duggirala and Bapiraju Surampudi and Mekala Shailaja and Anuj Kumar Shukla and Jaydip Ray Chaudhuri and Subhash Kaul},
  journal={Neurology},
  year={2013},
  volume={81},
  pages={1938 - 1944}
}
Objectives: The purpose of the study was to determine the association between bilingualism and age at onset of dementia and its subtypes, taking into account potential confounding factors. Methods: Case records of 648 patients with dementia (391 of them bilingual) diagnosed in a specialist clinic were reviewed. The age at onset of first symptoms was compared between monolingual and bilingual groups. The influence of number of languages spoken, education, occupation, and other potentially… 

Tables from this paper

Comparative Effects of Education and Bilingualism on the Onset of Mild Cognitive Impairment

TLDR
The effect of bilingualism is protective against cognitive decline, and lies along a continuum from normal to pathological states, in comparison to the role of years of education, which is less robust.

Chapter 10. The effect of language skills on dementia in a Swedish longitudinal cohort

Recent findings indicate that bilingualism delay the onset of dementia. Using data from the Betula longitudinal cohort study on memory, health and aging (www.betula.su.se) the issue of a possible

Delaying Onset of Dementia: Are Two Languages Enough?

TLDR
Evidence for protective effects of bilingualism from a multicultural perspective involving studies in Toronto and Montreal, Canada, and Hyderabad, India is reviewed.

Dementia in developing countries: Does education play the same role in India as in the West?

TLDR
It is demonstrated that in India, rural dwelling, bilingualism, stroke and occupation modify the relationship between education and dementia, which is in line with previous studies.

Bilingualism delays the onset of behavioral but not aphasic forms of frontotemporal dementia

Bilingualism, dementia, cognitive and neural reserve.

TLDR
The role of bilingualism as a source of cognitive reserve is discussed and the putative neural mechanisms through which lifelong bilingualism leads to a neural reserve that delays the onset of dementia are proposed.

Multilingualism and Dementia Risk: Longitudinal Analysis of the Nun Study.

TLDR
Linguistic ability broadly was a significant predictor of dementia, although it was written linguistic ability (specifically idea density) rather than multilingualism that was the strongest predictor.

Bilingualism and Dementia: Cognitive Reserve to Linguistic Competency.

  • M. Mendez
  • Psychology
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD
  • 2019
TLDR
These studies suggest that early-acquired and proficient bilingualism increases reserve through frontal-predominant executive control, and these executive abilities compensate for early dementia symptoms, delaying their onset but not the neuropathology of their disease.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 46 REFERENCES

Delaying the onset of Alzheimer disease

TLDR
It is concluded that lifelong bilingualism confers protection against the onset of AD, and the effect does not appear to be attributable to such possible confounding factors as education, occupational status, or immigration.

Bilingualism as a protection against the onset of symptoms of dementia

Multilingualism (But Not Always Bilingualism) Delays the Onset of Alzheimer Disease: Evidence From a Bilingual Community

TLDR
A small but significant protective effect of more than 2 languages spoken is found in bilinguals overall in relation to age at diagnosis or age at symptom onset, but the results mirrored those of Bialystok et al with 2 or more languages delaying the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease by almost 5 years.

Multilingualism and cognitive state in the oldest old.

TLDR
Regression analyses showed that the number of languages spoken contributed to the prediction of cognitive test scores beyond the effect of other demographic variables, such as age, gender, place of birth, age at immigration, or education.

The prevalence of frontotemporal dementia

TLDR
Frontotemporal dementia is a more common cause of early-onset dementia than previously recognized and appears to be more common in men.

Clinical profile of young-onset dementia: A study from Eastern India

TLDR
The objective of this study was to determine the clinical profile of patients attending a specialist cognitive disorders clinic in West Bengal, an eastern state of India, and found frontotemporal dementia was commoner than vascular dementia.

Subtypes of Dementia: A Study from a Memory Clinic in India

TLDR
The results demonstrate that the clinical profiles of dementia subtypes in a clinic population are influenced by the population’s demographic profile, cardiovascular risk factor burden, sociocultural attitudes about cognitive impairment, and possibly genetic factors.

An Epidemiological Study of Dementia in a Rural Community in Kerala, India

TLDR
Dementia is an important cause of morbidity in the geriatric population in this community, where families take responsibility for the care of relatives with dementia.