Bile pigments in fishes: a review.

  title={Bile pigments in fishes: a review.},
  author={Charles E. Cornelius},
  journal={Veterinary clinical pathology},
  volume={20 4},
Gallbladder (GB) bile of most cyclostomes, elasmobranchs, and teleosts contains appreciable amounts of biliverdin (BV) and bilirubin (BR) conjugates with lesser amounts of unconjugated BR in certain species. Certain elasmobranch and teleost species have been reported to have primarily BV or BR in bile. The appearance of the enzyme BV reductase, which converts BV to BR in mammals, evolved quite early in the evolution of vertebrate species; however, exceptions exist in certain fishes, amphibians… CONTINUE READING