Bile amount affects both the degree of micellarization and the hydrolysis extent of carotenoid esters during in vitro digestion.

@article{Petry2019BileAA,
  title={Bile amount affects both the degree of micellarization and the hydrolysis extent of carotenoid esters during in vitro digestion.},
  author={Fabiane Cristina Petry and Adriana Zerlotti Mercadante},
  journal={Food \& function},
  year={2019}
}
Carotenoid esters are present in considerable amounts in most fruits, such as in citrus. Although the bioavailability of carotenoid esters is similar or even higher compared to that of free carotenoids, these molecules are generally detected only in the free form in human plasma, suggesting that hydrolysis of carotenoid esters occurs in vivo. However, the available in vitro digestion methods were not able to achieve satisfactory carotenoid ester hydrolysis so far. As bile salts play an… 

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