Biko, Black Consciousness, and ‘the System’ eZinyoka: Oral History and Black Consciousness in Practice in a Rural Ciskei Village

  title={Biko, Black Consciousness, and ‘the System’ eZinyoka: Oral History and Black Consciousness in Practice in a Rural Ciskei Village},
  author={Leslie Anne Hadfield},
  journal={South African Historical Journal},
  pages={78 - 99}
  • L. Hadfield
  • Published 1 March 2010
  • History
  • South African Historical Journal
ABSTRACT Part of a larger research project on the community development programmes of the Black Consciousness movement (1969–1977), this article focuses on the relationship between the Zanempilo Community Health Centre and the people of Zinyoka, the village where Zanempilo operated. The article begins with an overview of community work within the Black Consciousness movement and the formation of the Black Community Programmes (BCP) organisation. It then follows Steve Biko to King William's Town… 

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