Bienertia sinuspersici (Chenopodiaceae): A New Species from Southwest Asia and Discovery of a Third Terrestrial C4 Plant Without Kranz Anatomy

  title={Bienertia sinuspersici (Chenopodiaceae): A New Species from Southwest Asia and Discovery of a Third Terrestrial C4 Plant Without Kranz Anatomy},
  author={Hossein Akhani and Jo{\~a}o Barroca and N K Koteeva and Elena V Voznesenskaya and Vincent R. Franceschi and Gerald E. Edwards and Seyed Mahmood Ghaffari and Hubert Ziegler},
Abstract Our studies on the enigmatic genus Bienertia (Chenopodiaceae), with its C4 photosynthesis and lack of Kranz anatomy, led us to the discovery of a second species of this previously-supposed monotypic genus. The new species is named Bienertia sinuspersici after its main range around the Persian Gulf countries and the northern side of the Gulf of Oman. Bienertia sinuspersici occurs in hot climates and is a vicariant of Bienertia cycloptera, which is found at higher latitudes and… 

A new species of Bienertia (Chenopodiaceae) from Iranian salt deserts: A third species of the genus and discovery of a fourth terrestrial C4 plant without Kranz anatomy

Detailed information on the morphology, leaf anatomy, and ecology of the new species is provided, and the new association “Bienertio kavirense–Cornulacetum aucheri” is described as a unique plant community occurring at the margin of the Dasht-e Kavir.

Phylogeny of Salicornioideae (Chenopodiaceae): diversification, biogeography, and evolutionary trends in leaf and flower morphology

A high intercontinental dispersability can be observed in Salicomioideae in particular in the Salicornia/Sarcocornia lineage with multiple colonization events in America, Australia and South Africa linked to the global aridification during the Oligocene, Late Miocene and Pliocene.

Does Bienertia cycloptera with the single-cell system of C4 photosynthesis exhibit a seasonal pattern of δ13C values in nature similar to co-existing C4 Chenopodiaceae having the dual-cell (Kranz) system?

The measurements of δ13C values over a complete growing season show that B. cycloptera performs C4 photosynthesis during its life cycle in nature, similar to Kranz type species, with a seasonal average δ 13C value of −15.2‰.


This first revision of Iranian species is based on long-term field studies, co-cultivation of plants in the laboratory, ecological, cytological and molecular studies and determination of carbon isotope composition.

Cytology of SW Asian Chenopodiaceae: new data from Iran and a review of previous records and correlations with life forms and C4 photosynthesis

It was found that C4 plants represent lower polyploidy levels than C3 plants, and presence of different cytotypes in the widespread species is advantageous as they can occupy different niches.

Is Pteropyrum a pathway to C4 evolution in Polygonaceae? An integrative approach to the taxonomy and anatomy of Pteropyrum (C3), an immediate relative of Calligonum (C4)

Pteropyrum is a small genus of Polygonaceae with four species from the arid regions of Iran and adjacent countries. Pteropyrum spp. are not precisely delimitated and are difficult to identify because

Structural, biochemical, and physiological characterization of photosynthesis in two C4 subspecies of Tecticornia indica and the C3 species Tecticornia pergranulata (Chenopodiaceae).

Comparative anatomical, cytochemical, and physiological studies on these taxa, which have near-aphyllous photosynthetic shoots, show that T. pergranulata is C(3), and that two subspecies of T. indica are C(4) (Kranz-tecticornoid type).

A Review of C4 Plants in Southwest Asia: An Ecological, Geographical and Taxonomical Analysis of a Region With High Diversity of C4 Eudicots

An analysis of the distribution of the three main C4 plant families in the region in relation to climatic variables indicates that the increase of C4 species follows more or less a latitudinal gradient similar to global patterns, while separate taxonomic groups seem to depend on specific factors as continentality, average annual temperature, and the presence of summer precipitation.

Diversity, biogeography, and photosynthetic pathways of Argusia and Heliotropium (Boraginaceae) in South-West Asia with an analysis of phytogeographical units

It is concluded that the Saharo-Sindian flora is not an autochthonous flora; most species are of transgressive origin from the surrounding phytochoria.

Diversification of the Old World Salsoleae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae): Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Nuclear and Chloroplast Data Sets and a Revised Classification

A first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of tribe Salsoleae s.l. (Salsoloideae: Chenopodiaceae) is presented based on maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analysis of nuclear ribosomal



Bienertia cycloptera Bunge ex Boiss., Chenopodiaceae, another C4 Plant without Kranz Tissues286

The hypothesis is developed that in species or groups of taxa specific leakages of their C4 systems do occur and this corresponds well with the variance in data from different individuals and populations.

Ecology, Biogeography and Pollen Morphology of Bienertia cycloptera Bunge ex Boiss. (Chenopodiaceae), an Enigmatic C4 Plant without Kranz Anatomy

The evolution, diversification and adaptation of Central and SW Asian halophytes is the result of intricate environmental and geological history of the area and needs intensive multidisciplinary research.

A remarkable new leaf type with unusual photosynthetic tissue in a central Asiatic genus of Chenopodiaceae.

A new leaf type with 1-layered chlorenchyma is described as “borszczovoid” and compared with other leaf types in subfamily Salsoloideae and a13C values are given for the first time from eight species of Chenopodiaceae.

An integrated molecular and morphological study of the subfamily Suaedoideae Ulbr. (Chenopodiaceae)

The molecular results confirm that C4 photosynthesis has evolved independently four times in the subfamily Suaedoideae, and a reassessment of morphological and anatomical characters on the background of the molecular trees resulted in the recognition of pistil morphology and leaf type as key characters.

Photosynthetic pathways inChenopodiaceae from Africa, Asia and Europe with their ecological, phytogeographical and taxonomical importance

Close taxonomic relationships between photosynthetic pathways and infrageneric classification in genera with both types of C3 and C4, like Atriplex andSuaeda are found.

C4 plants of high biomass in arid regions of asia-occurrence of C4 photosynthesis in Chenopodiaceae and Polygonaceae from the Middle East and USSR

Measurements of δ13C values were used as a diagnostic test for the possible occurrence of C4 photosynthesis in 175 species of the Chenopodiaceae and 18species of the genus Calligonum from deserts of the Middle East and USSR, and several features of these plants disclose some new facets of C 4 photosynthesis.

A new spiny, cushion-like Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) from south-west Iran with special reference to the phytogeographic importance of local endemic species

The majority of the endemic species in the southern and south-western parts of Iran are Irano‐Turanian or have their origins in the Irano-Turanian region and it is questionable to consider the area as part of either the Saharo‐Sindian, Sudanian or Sudano‐Zambezian regions.

Proof of C4 photosynthesis without Kranz anatomy in Bienertia cycloptera (Chenopodiaceae).

The results show Bienertia utilizes strict compartmentation of organelles and enzymes within a single cell to effectively mimic the spatial separation of Kranz anatomy, allowing it to function as a C4 plant having suppressed photorespiration; this raises interesting questions about evolution of C4 mechanisms.


1 Herbarium, Institute of Botany, Northwest Normal University, Shilidian, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, People’s Republic of China. 2 Vascular Plants Department, M. G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National

Carbon isotope discrimination in alpine succulent plants supposed to be capable of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)

The δ13C value of the 8 alpine Sedum species examined in this study was much more negative than in the Sempervivum spp.