Bidirectional case-crossover designs for exposures with time trends.

  title={Bidirectional case-crossover designs for exposures with time trends.},
  author={William Navidi},
  volume={54 2},
In the case-crossover design (Maclure, 1991, American Journal of Epidemiology 133, 144-153), only cases are sampled, and risk estimates are based on within-subject comparisons of exposures at failure times with exposures at times prior to failure, using matched case-control methods. While the design provides considerable advantages, unidirectional retrospective control sampling (selecting control times only prior to failure) can cause risk estimates to be confounded by time trends in exposure… CONTINUE READING

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