The Neisseria meningitidis ADP-Ribosyltransferase NarE Enters Human Epithelial Cells and Disrupts Epithelial Monolayer Integrity
The actin cytoskeleton is one of the major targets of bacterial protein toxins. The family of binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxins, including Clostridium difficile transferase CDT, Clostridium perfringens iota toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin, modifies arginine-177 of actin. Thereby actin polymerization is blocked. By contrast, actin polymerization is facilitated by the tripartite Photorhabdus luminescens toxin complex including TccC3, which modifies actin at threonine-148. The review discusses both toxin families in respect to recent findings.