Biases in social comparative judgments: the role of nonmotivated factors in above-average and comparative-optimism effects.

@article{Chambers2004BiasesIS,
  title={Biases in social comparative judgments: the role of nonmotivated factors in above-average and comparative-optimism effects.},
  author={John R. Chambers and P. Windschitl},
  journal={Psychological bulletin},
  year={2004},
  volume={130 5},
  pages={
          813-38
        }
}
Biases in social comparative judgments, such as those illustrated by above-average and comparative-optimism effects, are often regarded as products of motivated reasoning (e.g., self-enhancement). These effects, however, can also be produced by information-processing limitations or aspects of judgment processes that are not necessarily biased by motivational factors. In this article, the authors briefly review motivational accounts of biased comparative judgments, introduce a 3-stage model for… Expand

Figures, Tables, and Topics from this paper

Optimistic and pessimistic biases and comparative judgmental processes in Japan: Do people really compare themselves to their peers?
Studies on above-average and unrealistic-optimism effects have recently claimed that they are the consequence of an over-utilization of self-relevant and under-utilization of peer-relevantExpand
Deconstructing the better-than-average effect.
TLDR
This work provides direct experimental evidence that self versus average-peer judgments are made relationally rather than independently and, further, that self-ratings anchor these relational judgments, and shows that for dimensions on which the self is positively evaluated, enhancement motives restrict the extent to which average- peer assimilation occurs. Expand
Author ' s personal copy Biases in social comparisons : Optimism or pessimism ? q
Social comparisons typically lead to two kinds of biases: A comparative optimism bias (i.e., a tendency for people to view themselves as more likely than others to be the beneficiaries of positiveExpand
Biases in social comparisons: Optimism or pessimism?
Social comparisons typically lead to two kinds of biases: A comparative optimism bias (i.e., a tendency for people to view themselves as more likely than others to be the beneficiaries of positiveExpand
The role of egocentrism and focalism in the emotion intensity bias
People sometimes judge their emotions, preferences, and attitudes to be more intense than those of other people. Two experiments tested whether this emotion intensity bias in direct comparisonsExpand
On the genesis of inflated (and deflated) judgments of responsibility
Prior research has found that people tend to overestimate their relative contribution to joint tasks [e.g., Ross, M., & Sicoly, F. (1979). Egocentric biases in availability and attribution. JournalExpand
Direct-comparison judgments: when and why above- and below-average effects reverse.
TLDR
A novel account is supported, which describes how the timing of the denotation of the to-be-judged item influences attention and ultimately affects the size or direction of comparative biases. Expand
On the Genesis of Inflated (and Deflated) Judgments of Responsibility: Egocentrism Revisited
Prior research has found that people tend to overestimate their relative contributions to joint tasks (e.g., Ross & Sicoly, 1979). In the present research we investigate one of the causes of thisExpand
Attribution and Categorization Effects in the Representation of Gender Stereotypes
Social stereotypes involve judgments of how typical certain personality traits are of a group. According to the attribution hypothesis, judgments of trait typicality depend on the perceivedExpand
Losing sight of oneself in the above-average effect: When egocentrism, focalism, and group diffuseness collide
Four experiments examined the relative influence of three causal processes in the above-average effect (AAE) and related comparative biases: (a) egocentrism, (b) focalism, and (c) referent groupExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 184 REFERENCES
Turning up the contrast: self-enhancement motives prompt egocentric contrast effects in social judgments.
TLDR
A motivational account suggesting that these effects arise because people tailor their judgments of others to affirm their own self-worth was tested, suggesting that high-self-esteem individuals displayed more judgmental contrast overall than did their low-esteem counterparts. Expand
When standards are wide of the mark: nonselective superiority and inferiority biases in comparative judgments of objects and concepts.
TLDR
In 6 experiments, nonselective biases were found in perceptual, affective, and cognitive judgments of nonhuman targets, objects, and concepts, thus supporting a cognitive rather than a social account. Expand
Exploring the causes of comparative optimism.
We review explanations offered by researchers for optimism in comparative risk judgments – the belief that one is at lower risk than other people for negative events. Our review organizes theExpand
Objective standards are not enough: affective, self-evaluative, and behavioral responses to social comparison information.
  • W. Klein
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1997
TLDR
Three studies examined affective, self-evaluative, and behavioral responses to objective and social comparison information and demonstrated that attention to comparative feedback hinges on its desirability. Expand
Context effects in the measurement of optimism in probability judgment
Examined the role of contextual information such as comparison standard on self-other probability judgments regarding the occurrence of negative life events, which tend to be characterized byExpand
Evaluating others : The role of who we are versus what we think traits mean
Three studies explored the relative roles of the self and self-serving definitions of social traits in social judgment. In Study 1, participants evaluated the applications of prospective collegeExpand
Idiosyncratic trait definitions: implications for self-description and social judgment.
TLDR
Five studies revealed that participants who differed in their self-ratings along trait dimensions also tended to associate different behaviors and performances with those traits. Expand
Optimism, Pessimism, and the Direction of Self–Other Comparisons
Abstract Two studies (Ns = 234 and 179) are reported in which students made comparative assessments of their own and others' prospects of future examination performance, either by rating themselvesExpand
Pessimistic Bias in Comparative Evaluations: A Case of Perceived Vulnerability to the Effects of Negative Life Events
This study tested the hypothesis that unrealistic pessimism characterizes comparative estimates of coping ability. Participants rated their ability to adjust to a range of negative life events inExpand
Evaluations of Self and Others: Self-Enhancement Biases in Social Judgments
Three investigations are reported that examined the relation between self-appraisals and appraisals of others. In Experiment 1, subjects rated a series of valenced trait adjectives according to howExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...