Biased gene conversion and the evolution of mammalian genomic landscapes.

@article{Duret2009BiasedGC,
  title={Biased gene conversion and the evolution of mammalian genomic landscapes.},
  author={L. Duret and N. Galtier},
  journal={Annual review of genomics and human genetics},
  year={2009},
  volume={10},
  pages={
          285-311
        }
}
  • L. Duret, N. Galtier
  • Published 2009
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Annual review of genomics and human genetics
Recombination is typically thought of as a symmetrical process resulting in large-scale reciprocal genetic exchanges between homologous chromosomes. Recombination events, however, are also accompanied by short-scale, unidirectional exchanges known as gene conversion in the neighborhood of the initiating double-strand break. A large body of evidence suggests that gene conversion is GC-biased in many eukaryotes, including mammals and human. AT/GC heterozygotes produce more GC- than AT-gametes… Expand
Biased Gene Conversion and Its Impact on Genome Evolution
TLDR
Biased gene conversion appears to preferentially favour GC alleles over AT alleles, resulting in the overtransmission ofGC alleles in regions of high recombination. Expand
GC-Biased Gene Conversion in Yeast Is Specifically Associated with Crossovers: Molecular Mechanisms and Evolutionary Significance
TLDR
It is demonstrated that gBGC is associated with longer tracts and that it is driven by the nature (GC or AT) of the alleles located at the extremities of the tract, and proposed that the presence of nicks on both DNA strands during CO resolution could be the cause of the bias in MMR activity. Expand
Phylogenetic patterns of GC-biased gene conversion in placental mammals and the evolutionary dynamics of recombination landscapes.
  • N. Lartillot
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Molecular biology and evolution
  • 2013
TLDR
A reconstruction of the variation in gB GC intensity at the scale of placental mammals, and of its scaling with body-size and karyotypic traits is proposed, suggesting a more important role of gBGC in placental genome evolution, compared with what could have been anticipated from studies conducted in anthropoid primates. Expand
Twisted Signatures of GC-Biased Gene Conversion Embedded in an Evolutionary Stable Karyotype
TLDR
An analytical model is developed to describe the substitution patterns found in the chicken genome, and the relationships between substitution patterns and several genomic features in a rigorous statistical framework indicates that GC content itself, either directly or indirectly via interrelations to other genomic features, has an impact on the substitution pattern. Expand
Meiotic recombination strongly influences GC-content evolution in short regions in the mouse genome.
TLDR
The recent mapping of double strand breaks (DSBs) in the mouse genome and the sequencing of mouse closely related subspecies are used to analyze the fine-scale evolutionary signature of meiotic recombination on GC-content evolution in recombination hotspots, short regions that undergo extreme rates of recombination. Expand
GC-Content Evolution in Bacterial Genomes: The Biased Gene Conversion Hypothesis Expands
TLDR
This work finds a consistent positive relationship between the GC-content of a gene and evidence of intra-genic recombination throughout a broad spectrum of bacterial clades and shows that the evolutionary force responsible for this pattern is acting independently from selection on codon usage, and could potentially interfere with selection in favor of optimal AU-ending codons. Expand
GC-content evolution in bacterial genomes: the biased gene conversion hypothesis expands
TLDR
This work finds a consistent positive relationship between the GC-content of a gene and evidence of intra-genic recombination throughout a broad spectrum of bacterial clades and shows that the evolutionary force responsible for this pattern is acting independently from selection on codon usage, and could potentially interfere with selection in favor of optimal AU-ending codons. Expand
Nonallelic gene conversion is not GC-biased in Drosophila or primates.
TLDR
No evidence for GC-biased gene conversion is found in Drosophila and primate genomes, suggesting that previously observed GC biases may be due to positive selection rather than to biased gene conversion. Expand
The genomic landscape of meiotic crossovers and gene conversions in Arabidopsis thaliana
TLDR
Overall, recombination preferentially targeted non-methylated nucleosome-free regions at gene promoters, which showed significant enrichment of two sequence motifs, and GC detection through short reads has previously been confounded by genomic rearrangements. Expand
Influence of Recombination and GC-biased Gene Conversion on the Adaptive and Nonadaptive Substitution Rate in Mammals versus Birds
TLDR
It is shown that in both taxa, recombination and gBGC entail a decrease in dN/dS, and the analysis indicates that recombination enhances the efficiency of purifying selection by lowering Hill-Robertson effects, whereas gB GC leads to an overestimation of the adaptive rate of AT → GC mutations. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 149 REFERENCES
The neoselectionist theory of genome evolution
  • G. Bernardi
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2007
TLDR
The neoselectionist theory of genome evolution not only provides a solution to the neutralist/selectionist debate but also introduces an epigenomic component in genome evolution. Expand
Integrating genomics, bioinformatics, and classical genetics to study the effects of recombination on genome evolution.
  • J. Birdsell
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Molecular biology and evolution
  • 2002
This study presents compelling evidence that recombination significantly increases the silent GC content of a genome in a selectively neutral manner, resulting in a highly significant positiveExpand
Male-driven biased gene conversion governs the evolution of base composition in human alu repeats.
TLDR
Analysis of patterns of substitution in Alu repeats since their insertion suggests that regional biases in substitution are caused by biased gene conversion, a process that increases the probability of fixation of mutations that increase GC content. Expand
The Impact of Recombination on Nucleotide Substitutions in the Human Genome
TLDR
It is concluded that along with mutation, selection and drift, BGC is one of the major factors driving genome evolution, and the predictions of this model fit very well with the observed substitution patterns in the human genome. Expand
Recombination drives the evolution of GC-content in the human genome.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that recombination drives the evolution of base composition in human (probably via the process of biased gene conversion) and the pattern of neutral substitutions in 14.3 Mb of primate noncoding regions suggests changes of recombination rates occur relatively frequently during evolution. Expand
Reciprocal crossover asymmetry and meiotic drive in a human recombination hot spot
TLDR
C crossover asymmetry at a recombination hot spot in the major histocompatibility complex is demonstrated, providing an explanation for the relatively uniform widths of human crossover hot spots and suggesting that hot spots may be generally prone to extinction by meiotic drive. Expand
Biased clustered substitutions in the human genome: the footprints of male-driven biased gene conversion.
TLDR
Observations support the hypothesis that biased gene conversion (BGC), specifically in the male germline, played a significant role in the evolution of the human genome. Expand
Intense and highly localized gene conversion activity in human meiotic crossover hot spots
TLDR
Screen and selection methods are developed to characterize sperm conversions in two meiotic crossover hot spots in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and one in the sex chromosomal pseudoautosomal pairing region PAR1 (ref. 9). Expand
The hotspot conversion paradox and the evolution of meiotic recombination.
TLDR
Computer simulations of large populations have shown that crossing over initiates at specific sites called hotspots, by a recombinational-repair mechanism in which the initiating hotspot is replaced by a copy of its homolog, causing active hotspot alleles to be rapidly replaced by inactive alleles. Expand
Recombination is proportional to the number of chromosome arms in mammals
TLDR
A regression analysis is performed, using 21 of the 24 nondomesticated mammalian species reported by Burt and Bell (1987) for which the karyotypes are available to us, and finds that, in agreement with the expectations of Dutrillaux, there is a very strong correlation between number of chiasma (NC) and the haploid number of chromosome arms. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...