Bias in computer systems

@article{Friedman1996BiasIC,
  title={Bias in computer systems},
  author={Batya Friedman and Helen Nissenbaum},
  journal={ACM Trans. Inf. Syst.},
  year={1996},
  volume={14},
  pages={330-347}
}
From an analysis of actual cases, three categories of bias in computer systems have been developed: preexisting, technical, and emergent. Preexisting bias has its roots in social institutions, practices, and attitudes. Technical bias arises from technical constraints of considerations. Emergent bias arises in a context of use. Although others have pointed to bias inparticular computer systems and have noted the general problem, we know of no comparable work that examines this phenomenon… 

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