Bias in Mental Testing.

@article{Johnson1981BiasIM,
  title={Bias in Mental Testing.},
  author={Sylvia T. Johnson and Arthur Robert Jensen},
  journal={Journal of Negro Education},
  year={1981},
  volume={50},
  pages={83}
}
Racial/ethnic differences in the criterion-related validity of cognitive ability tests: a qualitative and quantitative review.
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Despite some moderating effects, validity favored White over Black and Hispanic test takers in almost all conditions that included a sizable number of studies; however, average Black-White validity differences were largest in military studies and smallest in educational and employment studies.
Latent Ability
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It is suggested that standard measures of academic performance are biased against non-Asian ethnic minorities and against women in quantitative fields, and under conditions that reduce psychological threat, stereotyped students performed better than nonstereotyped students at the same level of past performance.
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Data suggest that Blacks gained 4 to 7 IQ points on non-Hispanic Whites between 1972 and 2002, and gains have been fairly uniform across the entire range of Black cognitive ability.
She saved the world a lot: On the effect and effectivity of general counterstereotypes in stereotype threat situations
The theory of stereotype threat describes situations in which members of stereotyped groups often confirm the negative stereotype through their performance or behavior, for example when heightened
Do the Kaufman Tests of Cognitive Ability and Academic Achievement Display Ethnic Bias for Students in Grades 1 through 12
Cultural bias in cognitive testing has a long and controversial history. As the demographic profile in the United States continues to change and becomes ethnically more diverse, the need for
Do the Kaufman tests of cognitive ability and academic achievement display construct bias across a representative sample of Black, Hispanic, and Caucasian school-age children in grades 1 through 12?
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Results of this study provide the evidence needed to justify continuous use of the KABC-II and KTEA-II in the assessment of minority group children and adolescents and are generalizable beyond the Kaufman tests to other popular tests of intelligence and achievement.
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