Bi-directional series-parallel elastic actuator and overlap of the actuation layers

@article{Furnemont2016BidirectionalSE,
  title={Bi-directional series-parallel elastic actuator and overlap of the actuation layers},
  author={Raphael Furnemont and Glenn Mathijssen and Tom Verstraten and Dirk Lefeber and Bram Vanderborght},
  journal={Bioinspiration \& Biomimetics},
  year={2016},
  volume={11}
}
Several robotics applications require high torque-to-weight ratio and energy efficient actuators. Progress in that direction was made by introducing compliant elements into the actuation. A large variety of actuators were developed such as series elastic actuators (SEAs), variable stiffness actuators and parallel elastic actuators (PEAs). SEAs can reduce the peak power while PEAs can reduce the torque requirement on the motor. Nonetheless, these actuators still cannot meet performances close to… 

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