Beyond the Helium Conundrum

@article{Glowacki2013BeyondTH,
  title={Beyond the Helium Conundrum},
  author={Bartek A. Glowacki and William James Nuttall and Richard H. Clarke},
  journal={IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity},
  year={2013},
  volume={23},
  pages={0500113-0500113}
}
Helium plays a central role in superconductivity. Despite breakthroughs in high-temperature superconducting materials, helium remains the coolant of choice. Against this there is concern about helium shortages. Global geological helium reserves are estimated to be approximately 8 million tons and are mainly in the U.S., Qatar, Algeria, and Russia. Annual helium production from natural gas runs at approximately 30 000 tons and is distributed across a few players, both public and private: the U.S… 

Hydrogen Cryomagnetics—A Physics-Based Innovation

This chapter explores the potential for hydrogen transmission, distribution, and storage in the form of cryogenic liquid hydrogen. The production of cold liquid hydrogen is an energy-intensive

Design, Fabrication, and Testing of a Low AC-Loss Conduction-Cooled Cryostat for Magnetization Loss Measurement Apparatus

Conduction cooling has become a viable alternative for cooling superconducting devices. However, the thermal pathways of a conduction-cooled cryostat can be problematic for applications where

Techno-economic evaluation of helium recovery from natural gas; A comparison between inorganic and polymeric membrane technology

Natural gas produced at high pressure (50-70 bar) is the only industrial source of helium (He). A membrane separation process may offer a more efficient production system with smaller footprint and

Phasing out the U.S. Federal Helium Reserve: Policy insights from a world helium model

Composite Superconducting MgB2 Wires Made by Continuous Process

Previously developed manufacturing technology of a low-cost composite single core based MgB<sub>2</sub> superconductive wires has been investigated in details using monel sheath and titanium

Helium Production and Possible Projection

The future availability of helium has been raised as an issue in the literature. However, a disaggregated projection of helium production has not been attempted, presumably due to the difficult

Novel Superconducting MgB2 Wires Made By Continuous Process

A novel manufacturing technology to produce infinitely long and cost-effective MgB2 superconductive wires has been developed. The process consists of powder purification in a controlled atmosphere

Assessing the Past and Future Sustainability of Global Helium Resources, Extraction, Supply and Use, Using the Integrated Assessment Model WORLD7

The sustainability of the helium production, supply and use was assessed using the WORLD7 integrated model. The use of helium is at present concluded to be unsustainable with respect to long-term

Conductors for commercial MRI magnets beyond NbTi: requirements and challenges

Conductor technology is an important, but not the only, issue in introduction of HTS / MgB2 conductor into commercial MRI magnets, and in some cases the prospects for developing an MRI-ready conductor are more favorable, but significant developments are still needed.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 20 REFERENCES

Nuclear fusion and the helium supply problem

USE OF THE MODULAR HELIUM REACTOR FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

OAK-B135 A significant ''Hydrogen Economy'' is predicted that will reduce our dependence on petroleum imports and reduce pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Hydrogen is an environmentally

Feasibility of Hydrogen Cooled Superconducting Magnets

It looks feasible to realize hydrogen cooled superconducting magnets with High Tc Superconductors (HTS) and newly discovered magnesium di-boride (MgB2). As is well known, liquid and slush hydrogen

A success story: LHC cable production at ALSTOM-MSA

The Future of Helium as a Natural Resource

The book reveals the changing dynamics of the helium industry on both the supply-side and the demand-side. The helium industry has a long-term future and this important gas will have a role to play

Liquid Hydrogen Cooled Superconducting Magnet and Energy Storage

The earth faces environmental problems such as temperature increase and energy crisis. One of the solutions for the problems may be to put hydrogen energy to practical use. Superconducting devices

Conceptual design of 1 GW class hybrid energy transfer line of hydrogen and electricity

Applicability of 1 GW class hybrid energy transfer line of hydrogen and electricity is investigated in this report. Hydrogen refrigeration station is placed on every 10 km of the unit section. The

Hydrogen Liquefaction by Magnetic Refrigeration

This paper describes a new method of hydrogen liquefaction with a newly developed magnetic refrigerator. Magnetic refrigeration makes use of the magnetocaloric effect, and is well known as an

Refrigeration with Expansion Turbines

Abstract This paper reviews the importance of expansion turbines in low temperature plant for air separation, helium liquefaction and refrigeration, and other areas. The basic concepts of low