Beyond the Helium Conundrum

  title={Beyond the Helium Conundrum},
  author={Bartek A. Glowacki and William James Nuttall and Richard H. Clarke},
  journal={IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity},
Helium plays a central role in superconductivity. Despite breakthroughs in high-temperature superconducting materials, helium remains the coolant of choice. Against this there is concern about helium shortages. Global geological helium reserves are estimated to be approximately 8 million tons and are mainly in the U.S., Qatar, Algeria, and Russia. Annual helium production from natural gas runs at approximately 30 000 tons and is distributed across a few players, both public and private: the U.S… 

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