Beyond reciprocity: gratitude and relationships in everyday life.

  title={Beyond reciprocity: gratitude and relationships in everyday life.},
  author={Sara B. Algoe and Jonathan Haidt and Shelly L. Gable},
  volume={8 3},
The emotion of gratitude is thought to have social effects, but empirical studies of such effects have focused largely on the repaying of kind gestures. The current research focused on the relational antecedents of gratitude and its implications for relationship formation. The authors examined the role of naturally occurring gratitude in college sororities during a week of gift-giving from older members to new members. New members recorded reactions to benefits received during the week. At the… 
It's the little things: Everyday gratitude as a booster shot for romantic relationships
Gratitude and indebtedness are differently valenced emotional responses to benefits provided, which have implications for interpersonal processes. Drawing on a social functional model of emotions, we
The social functions of the emotion of gratitude via expression.
A novel behavioral task in which members of romantic relationships expressed gratitude to one another in a laboratory paradigm predicted improvements in relationship quality over 6 months, suggesting the unique weight that gratitude carries in cultivating social bonds.
Gratitude for Help among Adult Friends and Siblings
It is concluded that feelings and displays of gratitude have a special role in friendships, and although a close sibling may elicit as much gratitude as a friend does, even a very close friend is not exempt from the logic of reciprocity in the same way that a sibling is.
Positive psychology in context: Effects of expressing gratitude in ongoing relationships depend on perceptions of enactor responsiveness
There are concerns about the effectiveness of artificial injections of gratitude when the partner is perceived to be low in responsiveness, which highlights the need for more theory-driven basic research tested in context before assuming what appears to work naturally will also work artificially.
Four experiments on the relational dynamics and prosocial consequences of gratitude
Abstract Four experiments utilized experimental inductions of gratitude and behavioral measures of prosociality to explore the effects of 4 variables on gratitude and grateful prosocial outcomes:
It Takes Two: The Dyadic Effects of Communicating Gratitude
Theory suggests that the emotion of gratitude distinctively fosters a high-quality relationship by promoting positive connections between dyad members (Algoe et al., 2008). The current research
Find, Remind, and Bind: The Functions of Gratitude in Everyday Relationships
Though interest in the emotion of gratitude has historically focused on its role in social exchange, new evidence suggests a different and more important role for gratitude in social life. The
Gratitude: Prompting behaviours that build relationships
Experimental evidence of gratitude facilitating relationship-building behaviours is provided, showing that gratitude facilitates socially inclusive behaviours, preferentially towards one's benefactor, even when those actions come at a cost to oneself.
Gratitude, self-monitoring and social intelligence: A prosocial relationship?
To date, gratitude has been discussed as a positive construct that is linked to various prosocial outcomes, including helping behaviours and altruism, as well as intrapersonal and interpersonal gains
The Relational Experience of Gratitude
The structure and features of second-order emotion experience are used to extend the phenomenal experience of gratitude to the context of human relations. Various ways to categorize emotion,


Gratitude and Prosocial Behavior
The ability of the emotion gratitude to shape costly prosocial behavior was examined in three studies employing interpersonal emotion inductions and requests for assistance and revealed that gratitude's ability to function as an incidental emotion dissipates if one is made aware of the true cause of the emotional state.
The debt of gratitude: Dissociating gratitude and indebtedness
We investigated the relationship between the emotional states of gratitude and indebtedness in two studies. Although many have suggested that these affects are essentially equivalent, we submit that
Witnessing excellence in action: the ‘other-praising’ emotions of elevation, gratitude, and admiration
The results of studies using recall, video induction, event-contingent diary, and letter-writing methods to induce other-praising emotions suggest that elevation motivates prosocial and affiliative behavior, gratitude motivates improved relationships with benefactors, and admiration motivates self-improvement.
BRIEF REPORT Gratitude and prosocial behaviour: An experimental test of gratitude
McCullough, Kilpatrick, Emmons, and Larson (2001) posited that gratitude prompts individuals to behave prosocially. However, research supporting the prosocial effect of gratitude has relied on
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In this paper we integrate claims and ® ndings concerning the social functions of emotions at the individual, dyadic, group, and cultural levels of analysis. Across levels of analysis theorists
Handbook of closeness and intimacy
Contents: Preface. D.J. Mashek, A.P. Aron, Introduction. Part I: What Are Closeness and Intimacy? B. Fehr, A Prototype Model of Intimacy Interactions in Same-Sex Friendships. A.P. Aron, D.J. Mashek,
It’s the Thought That Counts: On Perceiving How Helpers Decide to Lend a Hand
It is proposed that these “decision modes” signal the helper’s underlying attitudes about the recipient, which in turn, clarify their relationship.
Feelings and phenomenal experiences
Following an initial emphasis on " cold " cognitive processes, which could be conceptualized within the computer metaphor of the information processing paradigm, social cognition researchers
Portrait of The Angry Decision Maker: How Appraisal Tendencies Shape Anger's Influence on Cognition.
This paper reviews the impact of anger on judgment and decision making. Section I proposes that anger merits special attention in the study of judgment and decision making because the effects of
Determinants of Gratitude Expressions in England
A field experiment (Study 1, N = 228) and a questionnaire study (Study 2, N = 120) were conducted to investigate determinants of gratitude expressions of British speakers. Based on Brown and