Beyond prejudice as simple antipathy: hostile and benevolent sexism across cultures.

@article{Glick2000BeyondPA,
  title={Beyond prejudice as simple antipathy: hostile and benevolent sexism across cultures.},
  author={Peter Glick and Susan T. Fiske and Antonio Mladinic and Jos{\'e} L. Saiz and Dominic Abrams and Barbara M. Masser and Babajide Samuel Adetoun and Johnston E. Osagie and Adebowale Akande and Ayodele J. Alao and Annetje Brunner and Tineke M. Willemsen and Kettie Chipeta and Beno{\^i}t Dardenne and A. P. Dijksterhuis and Dani{\"e}l H. J. Wigboldus and Thomas Eckes and Iris Six-Materna and Francisca Exp{\'o}sito and Miguel Moya and Margaret Foddy and H J Kim and Mariana Lameiras and Mar{\'i}a Jos{\'e} Sotelo and Angelica Mucchi-Faina and Marzio Achille Romani and Nuray Sakallı and Bola Udegbe and Mizuka Yamamoto and Miyoko Ui and M. Cristina Ferreira and Wilson LOP{\'E}Z LOP{\'E}Z},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  year={2000},
  volume={79 5},
  pages={
          763-75
        }
}
The authors argue that complementary hostile and benevolent components of sexism exist across cultures. Male dominance creates hostile sexism (HS), but men's dependence on women fosters benevolent sexism (BS)--subjectively positive attitudes that put women on a pedestal but reinforce their subordination. Research with 15,000 men and women in 19 nations showed that (a) HS and BS are coherent constructs that correlate positively across nations, but (b) HS predicts the ascription of negative and… 

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